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Chapter 5: The Professional Teacher

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on 9 June 2014

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Transcript of Chapter 5: The Professional Teacher

Chelsea Nash
Megan DeWeese
Principles of Teacher Behavior that Influences Student Behavior
•Developing positive relationships with students will enhance the teacher’s instructional effectiveness and exert a greater influence on student learning more.

•Student learning and on-task behavior are maximized when teaching strategies are based on what educators know about student development, how people learn, and what constitutes effective teaching.
To think about...
Educators should make an effort to get to know their students and to build positive relationships with them...but why??
Chapter 5: The Professional Teacher
Thank you!
"Research findings converge on the conclusion that teachers who approach classroom management as a process of establishing and maintaining effective learning environments tend to be more successful than teachers who place more emphasis on their roles as authority figures or disciplinarians."
(Levin & Nolan, 2014, p. 115)
An educator's behavior in the classroom must meet the behaviors that are defined as best professional practice, which benefit student learning and influence student behavior...what professional behaviors maximize student learning & behavior?
Chapter 5
3 sections:
1. Positive Student-Teacher Relationships & Effective Teaching
~examines the relationship between the instructional effectiveness of the teacher and the types of relationships that the teacher develops with students
2. Basics of Effective Teaching
~examines the knowledge gained from research on teacher behaviors that facilitate student achievement
3. Beyond the Basics
~examines more recent conceptualizations of teaching and learning with focus on student cognition & higher order thinking
Basics of Effective Teaching
1. Most Effective Lesson Design
2. Getting the Student Motivated
3. How Expectations Effect Students
4. Effective Question Strategies
imize Instructional & Learning Time
Most Effective Lesson Design
1. Lesson introduction
2. Clarity
3. Check for understanding
4. Coached practice
5. Closure
6. Solitary practice
7. Review
MAXimize Instructional & Learning Time
Allocated Time & Time-on-Task
Expectations Effect Students'
Behaviors that the teacher exhibits that communicates low expectations:
1. calling on student less to answer questions
2. giving student less time to think when called on
3. providing less clues/hints when experiencing difficulty
4. praising correct answers less often
5. criticizing wrong answer more often
6. praising marginal answers more often
7. staying further away physically
8. rarely expressing personal interest to the student
9. smiling & making eye contact less frequently
10. complimenting less often or not at all
Getting the Student Motivated
1. Relate to student interests
2. Relate to student needs
3. Include novel and various events
4. Encourage success
5. Create tension
6. Positive Tone
7. Have assessment & provide meaningful feedback
8. Encourage the student
Effective Questioning Strategies
1. Ask questions at a variety of cognitive levels
2. Call on volunteers and non-volunteers in a random order
3. Allow 3-5 seconds before calling on a student after asking a question
4. Have several students respond to a question before giving your feedback
5. After students answer a question wait 3-5 seconds before providing feedback
6. Vary the feedback that you provide (positive & negative)
7. Ask follow-up and probing questions

Beyond the Basics
By the late 1980s, educational researchers became dissatisfied with research done, because it focused only on low-level outcomes and generic strategies.

They began focusing on good teaching of particular content in particular contexts.

Learning & Motivation
To increase Time-on-Task:
1. Substantive interaction
2. Teacher monitoring
3. Ensuring understanding
4. Oral & written directions
5. Communicating teacher awareness of student behavior
6. Keep attention span in mind
7. Use physical movement appropriately
8. Academic games
9. Teacher modeling
Positive Student-Teacher Relationships and Effective Teaching Strategies
*Relationship building is not apart from skilled teaching; rather it is a part of skilled teaching.

*Effective teachers build positive relationships as they engage in the teaching process.

*All students, but especially those students who struggle academically or behaviorally, need to believe that the teacher has confidence in their ability to be successful.
Teacher Behaviors That Help Build Relationships
1. Gaining an understanding of students' interests and backgrounds

2. Paying attention to how students learn and tailoring instruction to meet student learning styles

3. Seeking to understand the students' cultural background and family life and incorporating that knowledge into curriculum and instruction.

And so on...
Other Forces Behind the Changes in the Focus of Research
1. Conceptual change research in science (Science teachers face different difficulties with students)

2. Rise in popularity of Constructivism as a set of philosophical beliefs to explain learning.

Teaching for Understanding
Choose Content that:

1. Has enduring value beyond the classroom

2. Is important to the discipline being studied

3. Is a topic students are likely to have preconceived misconceptions about

4. Has the potential to be enjoyable for students

5. Will naturally reoccur at several points throughout the learner's study of the subject area
Differentiating Instruction
Differentiation uses small, flexible instructional groups to meet learner needs, and it uses a wide variety of materials.

Differentiation is learner centered. The teacher must study individual learners to identify their needs.
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