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Copy of Native American Genocide

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Garrett Spillman

on 15 April 2013

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Transcript of Copy of Native American Genocide

Native American Genocide Where ? Why Did it happen? How did it play out? Genocide Timeline 1756 On April 8, Governor Robert Morris declared war on the Delaware and Shawnee Indians. Included in his war declaration was "The Scalp Act," which put a bounty on the scalps of Indian men, women and boys. 1813-1814 The Creek War was instigated by General Andrew Jackson who sought to end Creek resistance to giving up their land to the U.S. government. The Creek Nation was defeated and at the Treaty of Fort Jackson, the Creek lost 14 million acres, or two-thirds of their tribal lands.
To count the Creek dead, whites cut off their noses, piling 557 of them. They also skinned their bodies to tan as souvenirs. This was the single largest loss of territory ever made in the southeast. 1830-1831
On May 28th, the Indian Removal Act was passed, and from 1830 to 1840 thousands of Native Americans were forcibly removed.
the State of Georgia made it unlawful for Cherokee to meet in council, unless it is for the purpose of giving land to whites. The Cherokees responded by suing the State of Georgia for passing such laws. But the Court's decision stated that Indians were neither U.S. citizens, nor independent nations. 1833-1842 A law was passed making it unlawful for any Indian to remain in Florida.
That was the cause of the Seminole War - The second most terrible war between the U.S. government and the Seminole people. It was also one of the longest and most expensive wars in which the U.S. army was ever engaged.
Thousands of troops were sent, 1,500 men died,
60 million dollars was spent to force most of the Seminoles to move to Indian Territory. 1838 Trail of Tears - Despite the Supreme Court's rulings in 1831 and 1832 that the Cherokee had a right to stay on their lands, President Jackson sent federal troops to forcibly remove almost 16,000 Cherokees who refused to move westward under the unrecognized Treaty of New Echota.
In May, American soldiers herded most into camps where they remained imprisoned throughout the summer and where at least 1,500 perished. The remainder began an 800-mile forced march to Oklahoma that fall. In all some, 4,000 Cherokee died during the removal process. 1850-1853 In response the Indenture Act which established a form of legal slavery for the native peoples. The law also permitted whites to indenture Indian children, with the permission of a parent or friend, which led to widespread kidnapping of Indian children, who were then sold as "apprentices."

California began confining its remaining Indian population on harsh military reservations. This legal enslavement and genocide made California the site of on of the worst slaughters of Native Americans in United States history.
1866 On April 1, Civil Rights Bill, gave equal rights to all persons born in the U.S. except for Indians.
The President is empowered to use the Army to enforce the law.
The genocide took part in the United States. Ranging from when Columbus first discovered America, years 1493 to 1948.
Started on the east coast, and moving West. Who was involved ? All groups of Native Americans were the victims of the genocide.
Mainly all the killing was done by the Settlers who moved from Europe.
The Spanish did take part in the killings, who had disputes over the land, but mainly the damage was done by the English, who when they started to come to the Americas from Europe, they did not particularly care who was already living on the land. Europeans looked at their discovery as a new way of starting their lives over and they thought they had complete rights to the land. If the settlers wanted land and they would literally take it from the Natives without a second thought. Native Americans soon became a minority as settlers poured in from Europe and began to expand.
The purpose of the genocide was to move the Native Americans further West, so the Europeans would have more room to settle. How did the rest of the world react? What was the result? As a result of the genocide many Native Americans were murdered. It ranges from from 10-114 million Native Americans killed. There is no way they will be able to put a direct number on it. The genocide played out through many
different events shown in upcoming timeline. Most of the outsiders saw the natives the same way as the European settlers. But since the genocide was not just only one big killing, but took place in many different killings, most of the world might have not fully realized what was going on. Stage 1:
Classification-

From the very beginning the Europeans saw the "Indians" as inferior, not understanding their lifestyle or culture. Stage 2:
Symbolization-

They called the Natives satanic because of their religious practices and culture. Also they were seen differently because of the red color of their skin. Stage 3:
Dehumanization-

Propaganda was used to dehumanize American Indians. Religious practices led the US to believe they were inhuman and they called them animal-like. The names Americans used for many American Indian tribes were derogatory. European Americans often learned what to call one tribe from a neighboring rival tribe.
Some examples given to different groups of Native Americans are:
Papagos-"bean eaters"
Pima- "I don't know"
Mohawk- "cannibal"
Gros Ventres-"big bellies"
Stage 4:
Organization:

President Andrew Jackson put the army in charge of making sure all the N. Americans obeyed all the Indian Removal policies. The "Indian Removal Act" was put into action to clear the land for the settlers. The military was devoted to lead raids through villages slaughtering and burning everything in sight. Stage 5:
Polarization-

The Doctrine of Discovery, was another way to polarize material. It was a document that said non-Christians could not own land. It put the Christian blessing on the stealing of Indians territory and legal cover to destroy non-White Civilizations, whose citizens were indiscriminately slaughtered by the tens of thousands, enslaved, raped, and dehumanized. Books In 1881, A Century of Dishonor publication. - Helen Hunt Jackson released her book detailing the plight of American Indians and criticizing the U.S. government's treatment of Indians. Stage 6:
Preparation-

This was among the first and strongest reasons that forced the Puritans to deeply despise the Native Americans. The Puritans viewed any opposition to them in any fashion was a direct opposition to God, they thought that The Native Americans were doers of Satan. Virtually every piece of the Native American image inflamed Puritan disgust. Everything from the Native culture; their clothing made of the skins of reptiles, birds, and beasts; their ruling system; they decorated their flesh with tattoos and body paint; but among the first and most notable signs was the males with the long hair. Long hair, in the eyes of the Puritans, was a sign of pride. Pride was and is the worse of sins to them. Stage 7:
Extermination-

Regulations to force the removal of the Native Americans, outlaw traditional spiritual practices, prohibit the speaking of traditional languages, sanctioning kidnapping and indoctrination of in missionary or government boarding schools hundreds of miles from their communities, destroying legal and political systems, and undermining the moral and social authority of Indian societies.
J. Atkins, the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, argued that native languages were not only of no use, but were detrimental to the education and civilization of Indians. Stage 8:
Denial-

Some still believe this was the right thing to do to move Indians off of their land thinking that we would not be the nation we are today. Others realize that the government actions were immoral. The American Indian Holocaust, known as the “500 year war” and the “World’s Longest Holocaust In The History Of Mankind." The biggest killers though were smallpox, measles, influenza, whooping cough, diphtheria, typhus, bubonic plague, cholera, and scarlet fever. All imported by the Europeans colonists. The Shining - Although not the story of any Native American genocide, ABC reporter Bill Blakemore published an article in the San Francisco Chronicle in July of 1987 on his thoughts of the movie. He believed the whole movie itself was an extended metaphor to American killings of Native Americans. The hotel that the movie is shot in is filled with Native American paintings, along with the logo of a Native American chief on particular baking powder cans. Not only that, but the audience finds out that the hotel sits on top of a Native American burial site. Blakemore goes on to say that “The Shining is also explicitly about America’s inability to admit to the gravity of the genocide of Indians - or, more exactly, it’s ability to ‘overlook’ that genocide. Not only is the site called Overlook Hotel with its Overlook Maze, but one of the scenes take places on the July 4th Ball. That date, too, has particular relevance to American Indians.” Movies Personal Account of Red Cloud and Grandpa Dewy-Beard "The Ghost Dance" Reflection Scalping- the initial purpose of scalping is to provide a trophy of battle or portable proof of a combatant's prowess in war. The Series "Little House on the Prairie" talks about westward expansion, and takes on the settlers view of what was going on at that time with Native Americans.
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