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Grapes

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by

H Kaplan

on 27 May 2014

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Transcript of Grapes

G
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Incas
By
Samiah,

Reese,

Kameron, Julia,

Austin,

Hannah,

and Ashley
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Geography
The Inca Civilization consisted of intense geography that presented problems for trading, transportation, and delivering messages. Located on a long strip of land on the Western coast of South America, the people of the Inca Civilization experienced anything but a common landscape. The region is located in the Andes Mountains, and is bordered to the West by the Pacific Ocean. The Andes are the highest mountains in the Americas, and make farming very difficult. The people of Inca adapted by performing terrace farming, a process where steps are cut into a hillside to help crops. Between December and March, rainfall is plentiful compared to the usual dryness of the rest of the year. Crop irrigation was made possible by building large canals. These canals also provided water to cities for bathing, drinking, and washing clothing. Living where the Incas did would not be easy. The ground is very rocky and in some places very steep. Because of this, carts cannot go between cities. Runners were used to deliver messages between officials. They worked in teams to cover 250 miles per day, running on a 10,000 mile network of roads. Gorges were common, sometimes 300 feet across. Bridges were built over these to avoid falling in. The fact that the Inca civilization was able to survive their environment is truly incredible.


Religion
Stories of ancient civilization’s gods have enthralled us for centuries, making us wonder if there is anything beyond our stars. From Rome to the Mayans, it seems every past world had their own religion. The Incas were no exception. They had a spiritual world like none other, one filled with myth and explanation.
The Incas were unique to the time, for like Chandragupta’s reign, it offered semi-religious freedom. While of course their was a main religion that the Sapa Inca, or emperor, encouraged, religious freedom was a pleasure. The Incas were good people. When they conquered neighboring clans, they usually tried to do so peacefully. If the emperor of the tribe agreed to become Incas, he and his people were allowed to keep their religion. This led to many similar yet special religious belief systems in the same area.
The Sapa Inca encouraged a religion that centered around Inti, the Inca god of the Sun. Because the emperor encouraged it, it quickly became the most popular religion. It was a polytheistic religion, featuring many Gods. One of the most important was Pachamama. Pachamama was the Goddess of the Earth and Fertility, which was very important to the Incas for they were known for their farming skills and massive storehouses of grain. If Pachamama was not pleased, the land would not be fertile and the people would starve. She was also the Mother of Time. Another major god was Vercocha. He was the creator of all things, including the universe and people, and the God of Storms and Sunshine.
It also had many other gods and goddesses. Illapa was the God of Weather and Thunder. Mamaquilla was the Goddess of the Moon. Kanopa was the God of Pregnancy. Mamacocha was the Goddess of the Sea. All of them were worshipped, some more than others.
Incas believed in ancestor worship. They believed that spirits were eternal and that they needed offerings. They treated their dead as if they were alive, bringing them food and coming to them for advice. The Incas also mummified their dead. They buried their dead with riches and knick-knacks.
Child sacrifice may have been one of the most interesting things in the Inca religion. It was done regularly and often. It was considered an honor to die being sacrificed. Months before the sacrifice was planned to happen, the Incas would fatten the selected child up. The requirements to be chosen was to be physically fit and ‘pure.’ The child would be between the ages of six and fifteen, regardless if you were a boy or a girl. Once the time had come, a priest would lead the child up a mountainside, which would be hard and exhausting. Once they reached the peak of the mountain, the priest would drug the child with alcohol and special leaves. The priest would then either hit them on the head until they died, strangle them, or knock them unconscious and leave them to die from exposure. The Incas were considered brutal, but they were deeply religious and truly cared about the spiritual world.


Accomplishments
The Inca Empire had several accomplishments. The Inca Empire had very well thought out messaging system which they used to communicate to the others in the Empire.The messengers were called Chasquis. The Incas were also very good farmers they used terrace farming, they built large canal systems, called Andenes, to help them irrigate. They used bird droppings as fertilizer as well as dead animals like llamas. The Incas grew a lot of different plants like maize, squash, beans, potatoes, and cocoa which were all staple plants which means it was a plant which was grown a lot. The Incas had to pay taxes on the crops they grew. They had an invention that they used for counting and keeping records, called Quipu. This systems consisted on few or several strings made of Llama or Alpaca fur. They had several knots that represented numbers and symbols. They were a very well established group.
Politics
The Inca Civilization was built on order. They had a system that they used to get new tribes to join their empire. What they would do was ask the neighboring civilizations to join them. To help the deal they gave them gifts and offered to let their kids study in Cuzco, the capital. If the tribe refused the Incas would send their fearsome army to those tribes. The people of the tribe were either killed or turned into slaves. The Inca people shared their wealth, for the other tribes payed taxes. But not in the way you may think…..The people payed taxes by doing labor. Things that usually our taxes today go to like roads. The empire was strung together by roads and bridges which were very important to the Inca people. The Inca Empire was lead by the Emperor, Sapa Inca, who ruled over the four provinces from the capital, Cuzco. The government of the empire was somewhat like the Roman’s. The emperor was thought to be the descendant of the sun god, Inti. The descendants of the sun god, Inti, were the ones who founded Cuzco. So they are the ones who rule. The people below the Sapa Inca, the noble’s, job was to run the kingdom. Their land range all the way from present-day Columbia to Santiago, Chile. The government was run by the people below that, the public administrators. Overall the Incas had a very organized, complex political system.
Economy
Social Structure
They had a tax called mita which was the labor they did each year and some people helped build roads, buildings, and bridges. The way women paid their taxes is by spinning and dyeing wool. They built the roads because of the geography. That made it so peasants had to give free labor to create the roads and bridges. Almost all villages were connected by the roads. The way they got there food was from farming, but because of the mountains, farming was hard to do with little land to use. They stored the food the farmers planted for a long drought and so they can distribute it evenly.

The Inca civilization had very strict social classes. You were born into your social class and after that it was hard to improve it. The higher classes consisted of the dependents of the originals Incas, the ones who established the capital, Cuzco. Religion was also very important to the Incas, and so the high priest was second in the social class, only behind the emperor. The government was also very important to the Incas, and below the noble class were those who ran the government. Towards the bottom of the social pyramid were the commoners, or Artisans and Farmers. These people had to pay mita or labor tax for the crops they planted. There mita was once a year they had to work on labor projects instead of paying money. At the very bottom of the social pyramid was the Ayllu, which were the slave and servant families. Whichever class you were born into, was the one you probably stayed in for your whole life.
THE END!!!!!!!

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