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Tai-in Chung

on 25 November 2014

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Transcript of skin!


BY BRENDEN LEE, PAUL KIM, TAI-IN chung, melissa aquino
integumentary system
copy and paste as needed and take advantage of an infinite canvas!
Brenden's Box
Paul's Box
Melissa's Box
Tai-In's Box

skin structure
skin structure
Layers of skin: epidermis
Layers of skin: dermis
Layers of skin: hypodermis
3 distinct tissue layers that are loosely attached to underlying tissues covering bones and muscles: epidermis, dermis, and hypodermis/subcutaneous layer
- Epidermis: the outermost layer
- Dermis: the middle layer of skin, formed from mesenchyme cells
- Hypodermis: the innermost layer of skin
- composed of layers of squamous epithelium cells stacked sequentially in different levels of maturity
- Epidermis protects the body from water loss, mechanical injury, microorganisms and effects of harmful chemicals
- Layers of epidermis: stratum basale (basal layer), stratum spinosum (prickly layer), stratum granulosum (granual layer), stratum lucidum (clear layer),and stratum corneum( horny layer)

Integumentary System isn't perfect!

It can be a host for
degenerative, genetic, and infectious diseases.

Degenerative diseases refer to a progressive deterioration of tissues caused by environmental and internal factors.
Degenerative Skin Disorders:

1. Freckles - sun exposure can darken faint freckles on light skinned people. Solar lentigene is a type of freckling all over the body.

2. Skin cancer - degenerative disorder that can be caused by sun exposure; rapid proliferation of skin cells

3. Mole - flat squamous cell tumors that are heavily pigmented by melanocytes

Skin Color
Genetic Skin Disorders:
1. Acne: stimulated by hormonal chances / oil. Acne's accompanied by black heads, white heads, pimples, red spots, cysts, and nodules.

2. Birthmarks!
-Port Wine Stain
-Spider Veins
-Strawberry Hemangiomas

3. Vitiligo - skin disorder that appears as white spots/patches through hypopigmentation.

4. Albinism - genetic disease in which there's no color in the eyes, hair, and skin

Why do people have different skin colors?
1)They have different amount of melanin and different distribution and size of pigments in the epidermis
2) Environmental and physiological factors (genes) influence skin color

Melanosome: the organelle in which stores and transport melanin.
Infectious Skin Disorders:
1. Staphylococcus aureus - produces destructive secretions that erode and inflame the skin.

2. Candid albicans (monilia) - fungal infection that can spread to skin and nails when the immune system is weakened
Viral Skin Diseases AKA WARTS:
1. Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) - group of viruses that cause multiple warts - incurable, only removable.

2. Arthropods - ex: lice, spiders, insects, ticks.
Demodex and follicle mite can cause inflammation of the eyelash follicles

3. Lice - tiny hard-shelled bugs that suck your blood and can irritate the skin and spread infections & diseases.
As we age, our collagen and elastin fibers are
the factors that give us wrinkles, creases, folds, etc.
Scientists characterize aging factors of skin
ternal Factors)

-environmental factors such as pollution, sun exposure, foreign bacteria, disease

ternal Factors)

- genetic/natural factors
such as stress

-loss of hair, whitening of hair,
wrinkling, skin sagging,
decreased ability to sweat.
Skin Needling - using needles to
treat wrinkled upper lips
and difficult scars

Alternative - laser treatment
Skin Appendages are any complex structures that assist the skin with its functions. It includes

Ceruminous Gland
:the large gland found in the skin lining the ear canal.
*produces a waxy secretion called cerumen (ear wax)
ebaceous Gland
:a gland that secretes sebum into the hair follicle or hair bulb.
*sebum is an oily secretion produced by the sebaceous glands
Sweat Glands
:glands that produce sweat
Apocrine sweat glands
secrete an odorous, sweatlike material into the hair follicles of the armpits, navel, groin region, and areolae.
*inactive until puberty
Eccrine sweat glands
secrete mostly water and salts
*found mostly on the skin of the armpits, forehead, palms and soles.

Different types of Glands

Specialized nerve cells:
-Sensory receptors are found in all skin layers,but are mostly located in the innermost regions and in the fascia.
-Free nerve endings are pain-sensing nerves found in the lower part of the epidermis.
*they detect chemicals associated with tissue damage and bleeding,registering a response as pain.
-Merkel cells are nerves sensitive to gentle physical sensations.
*they are most numerous in regions of the body having special sensitivity,such as the fingertips.
-Tactile or Meissner's Corpuscles are nerves found in the uppper region of the dermis that responds to pressure
*surrounded by connective tissues
-Lamellated or Pacinian Corpuscles look like onions and are located in deeper parts of the hypodermis.
*respond to hard pressure,including vibrations
-Ruffini receptors are another type of nerve cells that are capable of providing the sensory experience of pressure or constant touch.
-Krause end bulbs are nerves found in the mouth that respond to touch

Fingernails and toenails are nothing more than a keratin secretion. Each nail grows forward from a
nail root
that lies beneath an area called the
skin-nail fold
. The cells closest to the surface die, flatten, press tightly together, and disintegrate to form the
nail body
(as these cells accumulate they push the nail forward). The whitish area at the base of the nail underlying the nail body is called the
The pinkish portion of the nail underlying the nail body is called the
nail plate
. The
is merely an outgrowth formed by the upper part of the skin-nail fold.
*fingernails of a healthy person typically grow about an eighth of an inch per month, which is faster than toenails,
Hair is a modified stratum corneum formed by an inward protrusion of epidermis called the hair follicle or hair bulb. Each strand of hair grows from an individual follicle buried in the subcutaneous layer.
Hair papilla
: the base of the hair follicle (associated w/ small blood vessels)
Hair shaft
: the main part of the hair structure
Hair cortex
: the principle layer of the hair shaft (made up of dead keratinized cells)
Hair cuticle
: the outer layer of the hair shaft
Hair medulla
: the inner layer of the hair shaft
Hair cycle
: the mitosis cycle of the hair follicle (length of hair)
Arrector pili muscle
: a smooth band of muscle that holds the hair erect
Vellus hair
: fine body hair
Terminal hair
: the hair of the head
Pubic hair
: the hair around the genitals
- Dermis: middle layer of skin
- connective tissue attached to the stratum germinativum by hemidesmosomes.
- binds the epidermis to underlying tissues
- Two layers: Papillary& Reticular
- Consists of connective tissue: hair follicles, sweat glands, collagen, elastic fibers
- Dermal blood vessels supply nutrients to skin cells and help regulate body temperature
Skin's four functions in magnitude:
1. Protection
2. Heat Regulation
3. Sensation
4. Waste Excretion

- The integumentary system acts as a barrier against three types of environmental damage:
. Chemical
- Water (sweat dilutes hazardous chemicals)
- Cerumen and Sebum act as oily barrier against water and water-based hazards. Also prevents skin dehydration.
2. Mechanical
- Damage that can compress, erode, stretch, or tear the skin
- Shedding prevents skin erosion
- Adipose tissue, reticular fibers, and callus absorbs shock
3. Microbial
- Microorganisms damages skin by producing destructive secretions in the sebum and sweat.
- Commensals and yeast protect skin. Also skin shedding.
Functions of the Integumentary System (148-152)
Heat Regulation
-Heat is regulated in the skin by expanding
(hot) or contracting (cold) blood vessels.

-Evaporation of sweat on skin reduces
heat temperature.
-Adipose tissue in subcutaneous layer is
natural blanket.
Injury, cold, heat, pressure, stretching, and touch
is sensed by transducer nerve.
-Waste is primarily handled by eccrine
sweat glands.
- urea
- organic chemicals
- excess salts
- Skin not efficient at removing body wastes
-Burns are from acids, bases, corrosive chemicals,
electricity, fires, steam rooms, etc.

- 1st Degree: superficial damage
- 2nd Degree: stratum spinosum and granulosum
- 3rd Degree: entire epidermis; skin not
effective barrier = infection, dehydration,
and loss of body heat
- Hypodermis (subcutaneous layer): the third and inner-most layer of the skin
- composed of loose connective tissue and adipose tissue
- binds the skin to the underlyign muscle tissue
- contains blood vessels that supply the skin.
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