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Transcript of Persuasion
Isn't it just the same
as argumentation? Relax, we are just starting our lesson. :) Persuasion is the use of language to make a reader or listener receptive to an idea or a point of view that he may not have held before. While argumentation is the process of forming conclusions, asserting your beliefs and drawing conclusions Persuasion vs Argumentation Argumentation Persuasion both aiming to reach a point of view acknowledges that there is an opposition but not expounding or debating it
one-sided, asserts that one's belief is correct and should be accepted
more emotional and personal fully reveals both sides of the topic, even each one's strengths and weaknesses require a formal tone usually supported with evidences It is composed of: Thesis Antithesis Synthesis it states one position it reaches a moderate view
somewhere between the two extremes A concrete example of such structure is this... Thesis Antithesis Synthesis it states one position it states the opposite
of the thesis it reaches a moderate view
somewhere between the two extremes Animals should be used
freely in testing. Animals should never
be used in testing. Animals should be used in testing only if they are not harmed or if the testing will save human lives. it states an opposition Another example of such structure is this but the synthesis is extended to a higher resolution Thesis Antithesis Synthesis it states one position it states an opposing statement against the thesis it reaches a moderate view
somewhere between the two extremes The drinking age should be 21 Legal drinking age should be imperative and relative to the place of implementation. However one must be careful of making illogical statements which are fondly called as... The drinking age should be 21 The drinking age should be 18 Here are several examples of logical fallacies which are commonly found in persuading an audience . The writer bases the argument on insufficient or
unrepresentative evidence One must also consider the entire population of dogs. There are also dogs who did not bite human beings. Non-Sequitur Someone argues that schools should continue to have textbooks read from cover to cover because, otherwise, students would not be well-educated. When asked to define what "well-educated" means, the person says, "knowing what is in the textbooks. The writer’s conclusion is not necessarily a logical result of the facts. Circularity or tautology should be avoided. A conclusion must be a result of the given premises. Begging the Question Professor Smith is a famous historian, so he will be a brilliant history teacher. The writer presents as truth what is supposed tobe proven by the argument. As you may have realized by now, just because someone knows a subject well does not automatically mean that he or she can communicate the information clearly; hence, the conclusion is not necessarily valid Sweeping Generalization All women love to receive flowers and chocolates It is an over statement of a condition and failure of a writer to qualify it as it may not be true to the entire population. It usually starts with "All" or "Everyone" (any other synonymous phrase or pronoun). There is no proof that the entire population is qualified to such conclusion Either/Or If you don’t go to war against Iceland, you don’t love your country The writer tries to convince the readers that there are only two sides to an issue—one right, one wrong. It is irrational because it doesn’t consider the other possibilities, such as patriotic people’s right to oppose war as an expression of love for their country Red Herring The elections failed because the whiteboard marker was dry. The writer introduces an irrelevant point to divert the
readers’ attention from the main issue. It is a clear example of having no sequential order. The writer is not giving a reason related to the premise. Propaganda Techniques Plain Folks Testimonial Transfer Glittering Generalities Name Calling They are the methods and approaches used to spread ideas that further a cause - a political, commercial, religious, or civil cause. This techniques consists of attaching a negative label to a person or a thing.
People engage in this type of behavior when they are trying to avoid supporting their own opinion with facts. Rather than explain what they believe in, they prefer to try to tear their opponent down. This technique uses important-sounding "glad words" that have little or no real meaning. These words are used in general statements that cannot be proved or disproved. Words like "good," "honest," "fair," and "best" are examples of "glad" words. In this technique, an attempt is made to transfer the prestige of a positive symbol to a person or an idea. For example, using the American flag as a backdrop for a political event makes the implication that the event is patriotic in the best interest of the U.S. This technique is easy to understand. It is when "big name" personalities are used to endorse a product. Whenever you see someone famous endorsing a product, ask yourself how much that person knows about the product, and what he or she stands to gain by promoting it. This technique uses a folksy approach to convince us to support someone or something. These ads depict people with ordinary looks doing ordinary activities. Bandwagon The "bandwagon" approach encourages you to think that because everyone else is doing something, you should do it too, or you'll be left out. An excerpt from US President John F. Kennedy's inaugural speech (January 20, 1961)
'So let us begin anew - remembering on both sides that civility is not a sign of weakness, and sincerity is always subject to proof. Let us never negotiate out of fear. But let us never fear to negotiate.
Let both sides explore what problems unite us instead of belabouring the problems that divide us.
Let both sides join to invoke the wonders of science instead of its terrors. Together let us explore the stars, conquer the deserts, eradicate disease, tape the ocean depths, and encourage the arts and commerce.
Let both sides unite to heed in all corners of the earth the command of Isaiah - to 'undo the heavy burdens ... and let the oppressed go free'.
Now the trumpet summons us again - not as a call to bear arms, though arms we need - not as a call to battle, though embattled we are - but a call to bear the burden of a long twilight struggle, year in and year out, 'rejoicing in hope, patient in tribulation' - a struggle against the common enemies of man: tyranny, poverty, disease, and war itself. Instead of staying at home during PA Days, students in grade six and above should be forced to do some volunteer work in their community. For one thing, there are a number of worthwhile agencies who are in need of extra help. Also, volunteering would get students out of the house and active, which is much better for them than sitting on the couch playing video games. Finally, volunteering would teach students responsibility and commitment to someone/something other than themselves. Overall, PA Day volunteering is a win-win situation for
both students’ and their communities. Homework is an important part of the learning process in middle school. One reason is that homework gives students additional practice of skills covered in class. Middle school classes are too short to teach a new concept and practice it sufficiently for students to master. Students need both guided practice in class and independent practice at home. Another reason for homework is that it provides time to complete longer assignments. For example, the ideal composition process allows time for students to think and to reflect on their ideas, as well as time to revise and to proofread their writing. Also, reports and special projects often require research that can not always be done at school. In addition, since all students do not work at the same speed, giving students time at home to finish work keeps them from falling behind.
Finally, the most important reason for homework is that it ensures review. New material and old material
are practiced in daily assignments. Students who do their homework daily are prepared for tests and make better grades. In conclusion, not only is homework essential to mastering new skills and maintaining previously learned skills, but it also guarantees constant review and provides time for longer assignments, as well as additional time for students who need it. Students, do your daily homework, make better grades,
and learn more! http://academic.cuesta.edu/acasupp/as/404.htm
Wyrick, J. (2010) Steps to Writing Well 11th Ed. Wadsworth Publishing: Kentucky, USA
Roldan, A.H. (2010) College Reading and Writing. Anvil Publishing: Pasig City, Philippines Submitted by:
Segundo, Mark Arlo
Chew, Abe Angela
Ampatuan, Sittie Fairodz