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Unit 1: The Universe
Transcript of Unit 1: The Universe
*Planets It is the totality of everything that exists, including all physical matter and
energy, the planets, stars, galaxies, and the contents of intergalactic space. Galaxy It is a massive, gravitationally
bound system that consists of
stars and stellar remnants. System It is a massive, gravitationally
bound system that consists of
stars and stellar remnants.
*structure, defined by components and their composition;
*Systems have behavior,
*Systems have interconnectivity:
*Systems may have some functions or groups of functions Star It is a massive, luminous ball of plasma held together by gravity. At the end of its lifetime, a star can also contain a proportion of degenerate matter. The nearest star to Earth is the Sun, which is the source of most of the energy on Earth. Other stars are visible from Earth during the night when they are not outshone by the Sun or blocked by atmospheric phenomena. Planet It is a celestial body orbiting a star
Planets are generally divided into two main types: large, low-density gas giants smaller, rocky terrestrials The Solar System Components of the Universe
Components of the
Solar System *Sun
*Comets The Sun It consists of the Sun and the astronomical objects bound to it by gravity.
Eight relatively solitary planets orbit around the Sun. The four smaller inner planets, also called the terrestrial planets, are primarily composed of rock and metal. The four outer planets, the gas giants, are substantially more massive than the terrestrials.
The Solar System is also home to the asteroid belt, which lies between Mars and Jupiter, is similar to the terrestrial planets as it is composed mainly of rock and metal. It is the star at the center of the Solar System. It has a diameter of about 1,392,000 km, about 109 times that of Earth.
About three quarters of the Sun's mass consists of hydrogen, while the rest is mostly helium. Less than 2% consists of heavier elements, including oxygen, carbon, neon, iron, and others.
Sunlight is Earth's primary source of energy. The solar constant is the amount of power that the Sun deposits per unit area that is directly exposed to sunlight. Planets We will divide Planets into: Inner Solar System Outer Solar System The four inner or terrestrial planets have dense, rocky compositions, few or no moons, and no ring systems. They are composed largely of refractory minerals, such as the silicates which form their crusts and mantles, and metals such as iron and nickel, which form their cores. Three of the four inner planets (Venus, Earth and Mars) have atmospheres substantial enough to generate weather; all have impact craters and tectonic surface features such as rift valleys and volcanoes. Due to their greater distance from the Sun, the solid objects in the outer Solar System contain a higher proportion of volatiles such as water, ammonia and methane, than the rocky denizens of the inner Solar System, as the colder temperatures allow these compounds to remain solid. Orbits of Planets Distances of Planets
from the Sun Temperatures of Planets Composition of Planets Moons of Planets Asteroids The asteroid belt is the region of the Solar System located roughly between the orbits of the planets Mars and Jupiter. It is occupied by numerous irregularly shaped bodies called asteroids or minor planets.
There are millions of asteroids. Comets They are small Solar System bodies, typically only a few kilometres long, composed largely of volatile ices.When a comet enters the inner Solar System, its proximity to the Sun causes its icy surface to sublimate and ionise, creating a coma: a long tail of gas and dust often visible to the naked eye.
Short-period comets have orbits lasting less than two hundred years. Long-period comets have orbits lasting thousands of years. Comm'on 6th,
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