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Transcript of WUF blanco
Under-Secretary-General of the United Nations
UN-HABITAT Executive Director Urbanization Analysis Challenges Lessons
Learned Early 21st Century, world urban population Early 20th Century, world urban population Early 19th Century, world urban population Recent Trends Development and Rate of Urbanization Up to 1000 USD GDP per capita nearly vertical slope. Very rapid urbanization trend.
Between 1000 and 5000 USD GDP per capita high positive slope and urbanization reaching 60% of the population.
From 5000 USD GDP per capita onwards, urbanization continues in a very consistent trend with lower slope. Development and Rate of Urbanization Urban growth is concentrated in developing countries Developing Regions Developed Regions Current Urbanization Trend Urbanization as a Source of Development Rural and urban area are intrinsically correlated by development. Development Urbanization Improved Agriculture Improved agricultural productivity in rural areas generate urbanization
Urbanization demands improved agrarian productivity Urbanization as a Source of Development Rural development and urbanization are dependent variables of development.
There is a common fallacy that states that rural improvement and urbanization are independent variables (dualism). Sources specialization economies of agglomeration proximity of the factor of production Drawbacks urban segregation congestion urban inefficiency Urban Productivity Main Urbanization Challenges in Developing Countries Slums and informal sector expansion Inadequate
urban basic services Socio-economic
divide/inequality High unemployment Unplanned urban expansion and sprawl Socio-political conflict over land resources High vulnerability to natural disasters Congestion and poor mobility systems UN-Habitat’s actions: I’m a City Changer! A substantial change is needed in the next phase of urbanization, and for this reason we mobilize to become a City Changer! Urban Growth Land Price Public Space
Design Infrastructure Historically, urban growth has been driven by: Urban Evolution from Prehistory to the Present Industrial jobs Industrialization Urbanization In some parts of the world... Development Urbanization Improved agriculture demands advanced services in finance insurance commerce urban settings which are more
productive in urban divide Increasing carbon emission in cities Unemployment and dominance of the informal sector In an improving economy, the slum can be seen as the absence of institutional capacity to plan for the Historically, the slum has been the spontaneous form of urbanization. expansion of the city. Urban Sprawl Developing countries: Developed countries: Lack of planned extension Cars Results: Often congested city center and chaotic urban periphery Unsustainable energy consumption Inefficient spatial structure of the city, and loss of urban productivity 2% 10% 50% More than 800 million people are living in slums Nearly one third of the world's urban population Very high energy consumption
High unhappiness about the modern city Erratic evolution of urban prices Preponderance of infrastructure over public space Excess of the tower in the park. Loss of street life Insufficient mixed uses
in most of the urban area Excess of inadequate zoning New urban divide New sprawl Main Urbanization Challenges in Developed Countries Urbanization and Political Decision Making Planned urbanization requires institutional capacity In a democracy, it requires political legitimacy governmental trust rule of law Manage
disputes Conflict of
interests City center Price of Land Expensive land No City center Infrastructure Construction of infrastructure Inefficient Loss of agglomeration economies Congestion Collapse of infrastructure and mobility demand Public Space Design Planning Successful urbanization requires social and political understanding of the use and productivity of the common good Without which there is no capacity to urbanize in a planned way. Public Space The most important urban good The challenge of : those who use the common good without contributing Spontaneous urbanization Planned city governance capacity at both the national and local levels Planning Capacity fundamental for urban Good governance and capacity is planning institutional Technical capacity is also imperative are imperative Both The essence of a City People Stones Rules The city is made of: Legitimacy: Citizen's recognition of their government acting in an appropriate and fair manner has evolved through history of urbanization: nature of the land law The Customary laws Autocratic and
dictatorial laws Democratic legislation Urbanization and Unethical Conduct As urbanization generates a lot of wealth... There is ample room for nepotism, favoritism and unethical practices History abounds with examples It is imperative to develop governance capacity institutions and to prevent speculation and unethical practices Urbanization, Profit and Losses Huge profits have accumulated in the process of urbanization, with different degrees of legitimacy Occasionally, huge losses have been and are made, usually associated with urban value bubbles Land Assets and Conflict In developing countries, land has a relatively greater weight in the basket of assets. Consequently, land is often a source of significant conflict and setback in the urbanization process. clear
legitimate A legal system to address urban land issues is a must. Four hard lessons for successful planned urbanization First. It is imperative to avoid social segregation. Four hard lessons for successful planned urbanization Fourth. Proper global density and mixed uses, Four hard lessons for successful planned urbanization Second. Proper urban areas must allocate between 45 and 50% Four hard lessons for successful planned urbanization Third. Public space must be properly designed of land to public space. No more,no less. to guarantee a community own common space that is also connectivity efficient. ensuring adequate proximity of the Factors of Production*. Factors of Production: specialized labor, goods and services. Dr. Joan Clos Urbanization and Development Urbanization Development There is a high correlation between urbanization and development: Urbanization is a source of development, not just an outcome of it. 1. Rural development The Right to the City The Way Forward. The Right to the City. Two urgent strategic lines of action for the world rapid urban expansion: 1. National Level
2. Local Level National Urban Policy Objective: Define the national priorities and coordinate the different branches of government which intervenes in the urbanization process. Planned City Enlargements Objectives: Should be guided by the
PCE designed adequately of the problem. In most of the cases it means much
of the enlargement to the preexisting city center and associate infrastructure. Prevent the unplanned or informal settlements (slums). Should legally define the plotting structure and buildability to be applied. connection Guarantee the at the scale bigger areas. legal delimitation of public space. (45/50) World Urban Campaign Need for a paradigm shift
Need to campaign on a new vision for the 21st Century and take action "Urban Agenda" for the 21st Century UN-Habitat is ready to strengthen partnerships with all stakeholders to:
facilitate urban policy reform
provide technical assistance for programme and project implementation City center Land ownership Common space Generating economies Political capacity Inefficient "free riders" Manifesto for Cities towards HABITAT III Prepared by the WUC Partners- Key messages: The Future We Want: Urban Cities are the world's greatest assets for pursuing sustainable development. How we plan, build and manage our cities today will determine our future.
Harnessing the city as an asset requires the commitment of all.
We declare ourselves City Changers. We commit to take an action and change cities for a better urban world.
We invite all Habitat Agenda partners to join forces and participate as equal partners in the Global Urban Agenda.
The battle for a sustainable future will be won or lost in cities. air pollution increased economic productivity Octopus city economies of urbanization Rational city