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Ferns and Relatives

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Mia Lemkuil

on 9 October 2017

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Transcript of Ferns and Relatives

Club Mosses and Horsetails
Characteristics of Seedless Plants
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Contain vascular tissue.
Use spores to reproduce.
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Two other groups of seedless, vascular plants are club mosses and horsetails
Like ferns, they have true stems, leaves and roots
They have a similar life cycle to ferns
There are few species left today
Club mosses are small
Unlike true mosses, club mosses have a vascular tissue
There are 30 species of horsetails on Earth today
The stems of horsetails are jointed
Long needles circled around each joint
Small leaves grow against the stem above the joints
The stems contain silica, a substance that is found in sand


The Structure of Ferns
By: Riley, Mia, Elijah, Cody, Jason and Ethan

Ferns and Relatives
Vascular Tissue

Vascular plants are better suited to live on land than non vascular plants.
Vascular tissue strengthens the plant.
Spores for Reproduction
Ferns, club mosses and horsetails still need to grow in moist surroundings.
They release spores into surrounding and become gametophytes.

Ferns first appeared on land about 400 million years ago.
There are over 12,000 species of ferns alive today.
They from tiny plants to large tree ferns that grow 5 meters tall.

Like other vascular plants, ferns have true stems, roots and leaves.
The stem of most ferns are underground.
The leaves grow on top of the stems and the roots would grow under the stems.
Nutrients enter root’s vascular tissue and travel through roots to leaves.

Vascular plant:
plants that have vascular tissue
a fern’s leaves
Importance of Ferns
Reproduction in Ferns
When a fern’s fronds are visible they are in the sporophyte stage. On mature fronds, spores develop in tiny spore cases. When the spore release the wind carries the spores. If the spore the lands in moist, shaded land, it develops into a gametophyte.A ferns' gametophyte then grow low to the land

Ferns are useful to people in many ways. They are popular houseplants. This is because they are attractive and easy to grow. They also grow other houseplants like orchids. Many people eat some types of ferns, such as fiddleheads for a vegetable dish.
Not all ferns are edible!
Another use is fertilizers. The tiny pockets in the fern's leaves are home to some bacteria. These bacterias produce a fertilizer that helps rice grow.
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