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trees and forests awesomeness
Transcript of trees and forests awesomeness
Trees and Forests
by Taylor Jones
Thanks for watching!!!
I hope you learned something about trees and forests!!!
animals (deer, bears, squirrels, beavers, moose,coyote, wolves, foxes, frogs, monkeys, koalas, snails/slugs, rabbits, birds)
trees (oak, pine, redwood, birch)
plants (flowers, bushes, trees, ferns)
wooden chair legs
hiking/walk or jog
Members of a Forest Ecosystem
Biotic vs. Abiotic
Roles in a Food Chain
Example Food Chain
When something is biotic, it means that it is, or was, alive. Some examples of biotic members of a forest ecosystem are wild cats, insects, trees, etc.
When something is abiotic, it means that it is not and was never alive.
Producers get their energy by making their own food through photosynthisis
fruits and berry plants
Consumers get their energy by eating producers or other consumers
Primary consumers eat producers
Secondary consumers eat primary consumers
Tertiary consumers eat secondary consumers
Decomposers get their energy by breaking down dead matter. They also return their nutrient to the soil
Effect on Abiotic Factors
Trees have an effect on the temperature because they make the air cooler. They affect this factor by giving shade.
Trees have an effect on soil because they prevent erosion. They affect this factor by using root networks to hold the soil in place.
Trees have an effect on the wind because they block it like a wall. They affect this factor by creating a wall using many trees.
Trees have an effect on moisture because they humidify the air and moisten the soil. They affect this factor by allowing their leaves to give off moisture, and allow less evaporation due to shade.
Forests are valued mainly because of their overall contribution to the planet and all its inhabitants.
Interactions With Other Species
Effect organisms have on trees:
Tent Caterpillar: Eats leaves and are detrimental to trees.
Leaf Miner: Eats leaves and are detrimental to trees.
Deer: Eats leaves and tree-bark, rubs antlers against trees, and are detrimental to trees.
Yellow Bellied Sapsucker: pecks holes in trees, "drinks" sap, and are detrimental to trees.
Blight: gets onto leaves, eventually gets into wood, and eventually destroys the trees. Obviously detrimental to trees.
Fungus, Conks, and Lichen
Lacks roots, stems, and leaves
Cannot use the sun to make their own food, absorb minerals and water from the remains of plants or animals
Type of fungus attached to tree trunks
Appear to be soft but are very hard
Firmly attached to the trunk.
Grow on walls, rocks, tree bark, and other places
Grow very slowly and live for a very long time
Can withstand extremes in heat and cold
Types of Lichen:
Crustose (crusty)- grows flat
Foliose (leaflike)- curl up off of the surface
Fruticose (treelike or shrubbery)- branched, grow upright or hang
Levels of a Forest
Upper Canopy: Top level, leaves and branches of the tallest trees.
Middle Level or Understory: Smaller trees or larger shrubs, sheltered place for birds and small mammals.
Herb, Underbrush, or Shrubbery layer: Ferns, wildflowers, tree seedlings, butterflies, mice, etc.
Forest Floor: Ground cover and soil, leaf litter, flowers, insects, etc.
1. Nutrients in the soil are absorbed by the roots of the tree
2. Nutrients travel up the trunk to the leaves
3. Leaves fall to the ground or get eaten by consumers
4.Decomposers break down dead plant & animal matter & return nutrients to the soil, where the cycle begins again
Plants lose water daily through the process of transpiration
Water on the ground flows downhill and into lakes, streams and rivers
Water from various collections heat up and rise into clouds as water vapor
Inside clouds, water vapor either reforms back into water, or into hail snow, or sleet.
Either rain, hail, snow, or sleet is released from clouds where the cycle starts again
Raw materials taken from the air.
What Makes a Tree a Tree?
Plants vs. Trees
Parts of a Tree
Coniferous & Deciduous
Perennial (can live for many years)
Have a trunk
Leaves or needles
Flowers, needles, or seeds
Perennial, annual (year long life cycle), or biennial (occurs every 2 years)
Has a stem
Woody or non-woody material
Flowers, fruit, or seeds
Roots: anchor the tree in the ground
Trunk: contains 4 parts
Outer bark (cork): dead tissue; protects the living parts underneath
Branch: grows leaves, flowers, fruit, and seeds
Needles or Leaves: main sites of photosynthesis
Crown: upper part of a tree, branches, twigs, leaves, needles, buds, and cones
Xylem: hollow cells, transport water and minerals
Phloem: moves sap, makes up inner bark
Cambium: produces new xylem cells
Heartwood: non-living core
Shedding of Leaves
-shed leaves in the fall
Shape of Leaves
-broad or needle leaf
-leaves waxy topside and large surface area on underside, causing moisture loss
-thick, waxy coating reduces water loss from transpiration
-do not withstand temperature extremes
-do withstand temperature extremes
Leaves are the part of a tree most commonly used to identify its species. Variations in leaves are used to divide them into groups by their:
type: either simple, compound, or needle
arrangement on branch: alternative, opposite, whorled, in bundles, or groups of a specific number
margins: smooth, wavy, or scalloped, fine-toothed, coarse-toothed
shape: linear (line), oblong (long), oval, ovate (oval with point), cordate (heart-shaped), lobed (earlobe), deltoid (triangle), orbicular (round), 4-sided needle (cross-section), flattened needle (cross-section)
Here are the different types of bark that you can use to help identify a tree:
Scaly: Looks very similar to the scales on a fish or a snake etc.
Horizontal: Looks similar to paper when peeling off a wall
Vertical: cracks in a way that creates vertical "lines" down the tree
Horizontal and Wavy: Looks similar to vertical, but is more wavy and goes around the tree
Vertical and Wavy: Looks similar to scaly, but has longer "Scales"
Branching patterns of a tree are very similar to that of a leaf. Here are the branching patterns that could help you identify a tree:
Whorled: 2 or 3 growing from the same location
Opposite: grow across from each other
alternate: Grow opposite each other, but 1 is farther up than the previous
Spiral: Grow like a spiral staircase all the way up the tree
Excurrent: The main trunk goes the entire height of the tree, with branches forming patterns
Decurrant: Main trunk continues up about halfway, then splits into more than one branch
Columnar: Main trunk continues up the full height of the tree, with branches forming only at the top
Bundles of 5
Bundles of 3
Logging and Reforestation
Positive and negative effect on Forests
Issue: The Great Bear Rainforest