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Persuasiveness of the NHS Smokefree Campaign

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James Hudson

on 27 August 2015

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Transcript of Persuasiveness of the NHS Smokefree Campaign

Outline the key features of the campaign
Critique the campaign in terms of persuasiveness
To analyze the campaign in terms of key marketing concepts
The campaigns relation to the macro positioning of the NHS
Is the campaign appropriate in terms of strategy and technique?
Reflect on the key findings: ultimately, is the campaign effective?
Persuasiveness of the NHS Smokefree Campaign
The NHS was launched in 1948
Treats one million people every 36 hours
Publicly funded
Introduction to Campaign
Reduce adult smoking prevalence to 18.5%
Reduce smoking prevalence amongst 15 year olds to 12% or less
To reduce rates of smoking throughout pregnancy to 11% or less

'The role of the national marketing campaign will be to remind smokers why they need and want to stop, triggering immediate quit attempts nationally within the smoking population and signposting people to information to help them make more effective quit attempts.'
TV, online, radio, billboards
92% awareness of advert
34% of people who viewed advert took action
41% of people who viewed advert were more likely to quit
460,000 quit kits distributed
73% of people believed the message
Features & Effects
Mutation 2012
Smokefree homes & cars
Features & Effects
TV, online, radio, billboards
91% awareness of advert
40% of those who saw advert attempted to quit
Concerns for health harms as a result of smoking rose from 69% to 77%
3/10 said they had cut down smoking around children
73% of people believed the message
Relation to Macro Positioning of the NHS
Relevant Brand Aims:
Increase understanding of services provided
Do more to inform lifestyle choices to promote health

Brand positioning:
Worldwide reputation for providing innovative products and services
Internationally recognized and trusted

'Build and grow the NHS brand and reputation overseas enabling the NHS to compete in the international healthcare market'
Simon Burns (Minister of State for Health)
We are presented data published by the NHS which appears to show the campaign as very successful:
Increased awareness
Increased quit attempts
Increased concern for personal health and that of others

Appear relevant and useful at first, however:
No sample size provided
Exchange System. Adapted from Kotler (1998)
Key Persuasive Marketing
Communications Concepts
'Good healthcare should be provided for all, regardless of wealth'
Innovative campaign designed to be anti-smoking, not anti-smoking
Adverts across TV, radio, billboards and internet
£15 million / year
Shock Factor
Information Processing
Cues of Influence
Colley (1961)
Defining Advertising Goals for Measured Adverting Results
States that an advertising goal should be a specific communication task
Series of mental steps through which a brand gains exceptance

1) Awareness
2) Comprehension
3) Conviction
4) Action
Hackley (2010)
Development and integration of marketing concepts
Benefit of greater social good
Integration of research, theory, audience and partnership and insight
Hastings & Hayward (1991)
Voluntary and mutually beneficial exchange
Consumer orientation
The setting of objectives
Kotler (1982)
'Social marketing is the design, implementation and control of programs seeking to increase the acceptability of a social idea, cause or practice within a social group.'
Social Marketing
Opposite Effect
University of Georgia (2007)
Anti-smoking ads have opposite effect on teens

Hurst (2011)
Extreme anti-smoking ads can backfire

Terror management theory

Emotional vs Factual
Hackley (2010)
Information processing model
Factual messages give adverts power
Truthful and accurate facts help to build strong PR
Saussure (1916)
The capacity for signals to have definitive or numerous interpretations
Signals that have the the capacity to change the behavior of individuals
Many persuasive signals are presented by the adverts
Not all individuals or groups respond to signals in the same manner
One definitive meaning
Smoking is harmful
Raju (1980)
Different statistical groups may respond to the advert in different ways:
Older population
Hackley (2010)
Gaining public attention through shock

Robin (1997)
Key factor of a successful advert is to get people talking about it

Dahl (2003)
'Deliberately, rather than inadvertently, startles and offends its audience by violating norms for social values and personal ideas.'

Why Utilise Shock?
Dahl (2003)
Increased attention, recall and recognition

Vezina & Paul (1997)
Norm violation is key to heightened awareness
Successful shocking adverts often instil fear

Representational Paradox
Lewis (1899)
Traditional advertising model
Transition to a more relevant model, RACE
Smart Insights (2012)
Shift from brand and service awareness
Shows brand and service resonance
More relavant to modern advertising techniques and online engagement
Keeping up with changing environment
Concluding Points
92/91% awareness
73% believed message
40% attempted to quit 2
460,000 QuitKits distributed
Sadikci (2015)
Adverts tend to portray glamour and pleasure
NHS flip this model
Shock adverts show shocking reality opposed to fantastical unreality
Consistent communication methods

Hackley (2010)
Integration of brand across different media channels
Reinforce messages and achieve deeper audience reach
Personal channels
Strength of persuasion:
Strangled child
Negative connotations
Dependent on demographic
Successful or Unsuccessful ?
Background to problem:
Over 8 million smokers in the UK
£2 billion cost to the NHS
£12.9 billion cost to society

NHS Statistics
Colley, R. (1961). Defining Advertising Goals. New York: Association of National Advertising, p.252.

DAHL, D., FRANKENBERGER, K. and MANCHANDA, R. (2003). Does It Pay to Shock? Reactions to Shocking and Nonshocking Advertising Content among University Students. J. Adv. Res., 43(03), pp.268-280.

Dunn, A. (2011). What Next for NHS Branding. [online] p.4. Available at: http://www.chamberlaindunn.com/documents/ThefutureofNHSbranding.pdf [Accessed 16 Feb. 2015].

Hackley, C. (2010). Advertising and promotion. Los Angeles: SAGE.

HASTINGS, G. and HAYWOOD, A. (1991). Social marketing and communication in health promotion. Health Promotion International, 6(2), pp.135-145.

Hurst, N. (2011). MU News Bureau | MU News Bureau. [online] Munews.missouri.edu. Available at: http://munews.missouri.edu/news-releases/2011/0817-extreme-negative-anti-smoking-ads-can-backfire-mu-experts-find/ [Accessed 15 Feb. 2015].

Kotler, P. (1980). Marketing management. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall.

Kotler, P., Andreasen, A. and Kotler, P. (1987). Strategic marketing for nonprofit organizations. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, p.528.

Lewis, E. (1899). Side Talks about Advertsing. The Western Druggist, p.66.

News.uga.edu, (2007). UGA study explains why anti-smoking ads backfire or succeed | UGA Today. [online] Available at: http://news.uga.edu/releases/article/uga-study-explains-why-anti-smoking-ads-backfire-or-succeed/ [Accessed 21 Feb. 2015].

Nhs.uk, (2015). About the National Health Service (NHS) in England - NHS Choices. [online] Available at: http://www.nhs.uk/NHSEngland/thenhs/about/Pages/overview.aspx [Accessed 21 Feb. 2015].

Nhsidentity.nhs.uk, (2015). History | NHS Brand Guidelines. [online] Available at: http://www.nhsidentity.nhs.uk/about-the-nhs-brand/background-and-aims [Accessed 18 Jan. 2015].

Raju, P. (1980). Optimum Stimulation Level: Its Relationship to Personality, Demographics, and Exploratory Behavior. Journal of Consumer Research, 7(3), p.272.

Resources.smokefree.nhs.uk, (2015). Campaigns | Smokefree Resource Centre. [online] Available at: http://resources.smokefree.nhs.uk/campaign/ [Accessed 11 Jan. 2015].

Rhodes, N., Roskos-Ewoldsen, D., Eno, C. and Monahan, J. (2009). The Content of Cigarette Counter-Advertising: Are Perceived Functions of Smoking Addressed?. Journal of Health Communication, 14(7), pp.658-660.

Robin, J. (1997). Why Smokers Smoke. World Tobacco, (160), p.12.

Sandıkcı, Ö. (2015). Shock Tactics in Advertising and Implications for Citizen-Consumer. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science, [online] 1(18), pp.42-47. Available at: http://www.ijhssnet.com/journals/Vol_1_No_18_Special_Issue/6.pdf [Accessed 19 Feb. 2015].

Saussure, F. (1959). Course in general linguistics. New York: Philosophical Library.

Smart Insights, (2015). Introducing RACE: a practical framework to improve your digital marketing. [online] Available at: http://www.smartinsights.com/digital-marketing-strategy/race-a-practical-framework-to-improve-your-digital-marketing/ [Accessed 21 Feb. 2015].

Vézina, R. and Paul, O. (1997). Provocation in advertising: A conceptualization and an empirical assessment. International Journal of Research in Marketing, 14(2), pp.177-192.

Williams, L. (2012). Smokefree Marketing Campaign Strategy: 2012-2015. 1st ed. [ebook] Department of Health, pp.3-5. Available at: http://resources.smokefree.nhs.uk/wp-content/uploads/2012/10/2900211_TobaccoControl_acc.pdf [Accessed 10 Jan. 2015].
Feel free to ask any questions
PHE study confirms persuasiveness
Changes in smoking behaviour are a result of the campaign
Literature Review
Fill (2012)
Shurm et al (2012)
Thorson & Moore (1996)
Hovland et al (1953)
Friestad and Wright (1994)
Full transcript