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Timeline of Nursing Theory Development

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Mysha Hatch

on 31 March 2015

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Transcript of Timeline of Nursing Theory Development


Theory Era


1st Hospitals


1st Curriculum


Curriculum Era


Graduate Era




Research Era

Timeline of Nursing Theory Development
Florence Nightingale: Listen Below.....
1900: 400-800 Schools of Nursing are now in the US

1917-1919: World War 1 happens; need for nurses increases even more

1917: First standardized curriculum for schools of nursing are developed
The title of the book is:
"Standard Curriculum for Schools of Nursing"
Curriculum Era 1920-1950
World Events:
1920: U.S. women's voting rights
1922: Insulin isolated
1923: Yale (1st independent SON)
1929-1933: Great Depression
1928: Penicillin discovered
(but not used until 1941!!)
1943-1945: WWII
Experiences of a World War II Nurse
1950-1970: Research Era
More nurses begin seeking degrees from higher education
Nurse educators and scholars push for research as the path to find new nursing knowledge
Nurses begin to participate in research as part of their programs
Research is included in study of graduate nursing programs
1950-1970 Historical Events
1950: 1st organ transplant
1952: Theorist: Peplau publishes
1960: Theorist: Henderson
1960's: Civil Rights Movement (1963)
1965: Medicare & Medicaid
1967: 1st heart transplant

Florence Nightingale: London, England
First Hospitals Established in the US
Graduate Era: 1970...
Theory Era: 1980...
1751: Pennsylvania Hospital
Pittsburg, PA
1771: NY Presbyterian Hospital
1736: Bellvue Hospital, NYC, NY
Families took care of families
Religious organizations giving care to the poor; think of nuns and monks
Military caring for injured soldiers; many health advances have come out of wars over the years
Nursing: Who took care of the sick before nurses and hospitals were around? Pre 1700's:
Massachusetts General Hospital
Established in 1811
Teaching Hospital of Harvard University
1820-1870: Industrial Revolution was occurring in England
Nursing: had been a trade-based apprenticeship (go to a hospital and learn on the job)
Hospital-based needs were addressed
There was no nursing theory during this time. Any theory was borrowed from:
social sciences
biologic sciences
medical science
1860: Florence Nightingale
WW1 Influences on Standardized Curriculum
Standardized course of study for nurse practice and preparation begin
Idea to move from hospital programs, to community colleges and universities goes forward
Women get the Right to Vote in the U.S.
Yale University - first autonomous school of nursing in the U.S. with its own dean, faculty, budget, and degree, meeting the standards of the university. Curriculum was based on an actual educational plan rather than on hospital service needs.
Penicillin is Discovered (but not used until 1941)
Insulin is Isolated
World War Two: increases need for nurses, then there is an excess of trained nurses after war ends
The Great Depression occurs
Biography 1820 - 1910
Voice Recording 1890
1873: First Nightingale Schools in U.S.
1893: pre-NLN was organized; 1912 NLN formed
1950: 1st Organ Transplant
1952: Peplau
1960: Henderson
1960: Civil Rights Movement (1963)
1965: Medicare & Medicaid
1967: 1st Heart Transplant
NLN involved in accreditation of BSN and masters programs, is pushing to use of nursing theory courses and research courses in graduate education
1970: Abortion legalized 1976: Roy 1979: Watson 1979: Orem
Major development toward nursing theories
Theories in nursing practice, administration, education, research, and further theory development
Facilitated growth of nursing as a science due to theory embedding
Early 1980's PhD programs flourished in several more schools
Historical Events
1981: Parse
1982: Pender
1984: Benner
1988: Watson
1990's: Sheep Cloned
1990's: Healthcare costs 2x
rate of inflation
1997: NLNAC Established
2000: Map Human Genome
What Florence did for nursing:
1. Established importance of the
for patients' healing
2. She made a poor career into an
honored and respected career
3. She was the
first nurse theorist
4. She was the
first nurse statistician

Specialization in communities (like lay midwives or someone who pulled bad teeth, not a dentist)
And WHAT is next in the world of nursing?
Spend a moment thinking about what is different in today's world of nursing from years past. What is the next step in nursing development and progression in the field? How will the future change because of nursing and nurses, our history combined with our future?
Think about it...because you are part of that future of nursing.
Katherine Kolcaba 1994
Theory of Comfort
Rozano Locsin 2005
Technological Competency
as Caring in Nursing
Health Promotion Model
humanbecoming theory
From Novice to Expert:
Acquisition of Nursing Knowledge
Theory of Human Caring
Full transcript