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Senses: Human Body Systems Biology Research Project

a look at one of the most complex parts of the human body.
by

Dominic Kizek

on 13 March 2012

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Transcript of Senses: Human Body Systems Biology Research Project

The Senses By: Dominic Kizek Primary Function: to help us experience and react to our surroundings and various stimuli. The Senses Sight Body Systems Involved: Muscular Nervous Skeletal Integumentary Circulatory Respiratory Digestive inner layer of eye colored part of the eye the amount of light that enters depends on its size light sensitive color sensitive focuses the light adjust focus jelly-like fluid no photoreceptors carries images to the visual cortex Any Questions? Hearing used to sense light and see around us. sound enters through here used to hear and maintain balance. vibrates when sound passes through transmits vibrations to the oval window pass the vibration on (hammer) (anvil) (stirrups) pressure forms here from the vibrations; fluid-filled sends nerve impulses to the brain monitor the position of your body in relation to gravity The Eye The Ear Smell The Nose to detect chemicals in the food we eat and the surrounding world in general. Taste used to detect the taste of objects inserted into one's mouth through means of chemicals. The Tongue The Mouth main location of taste buds, which detect taste the rest are located around the mouth in various locations filter particles olfactory bulb: sensitive to chemicals in the mucus olfactory nerve: sends a message to the brain about the chemicals nasal cavity: secretes mucus chemicals are deposited in the mucus Touch used to detect a change in temperature, touch, and pain through sensory receptors. Immune Nerve Endings pressure pain heat cold touch The Fingers, Toes, and Face They have the greatest density of touch receptors in the body. Diseases and Disorders One of the most common disorders in humans is myopia, short-sightedness, and hyperopia, far-sightedness. Treatment includes LASIK, contacts, or glasses. With Treatment and Prevention Conjunctivitis is a baterial infection in the conjunctiva producing pus. Treatment includes antibiotic eye drops or ointments. Hearing loss is fairly common caused due to damage to the cochlea's hair cells. Treatment includes cochlear implant which converts sound into electrical impulses. Acne is caused by dead skin cells not being taken away and clogging pores. Treatment includes a variety of products which almost all include benzoyl peroxide. Vitiligo is the patchy loss of skin pigment thought to be caused by genetics. Treatment includes transplanting melanin-producing cells to the affected area. Black hairy tongue is caused by excessive growth of the follicles on the tongue and colored by some fungus. Treatment includes good oral hygiene, add roughage to diet, and antifungal medicine. Current Research and Technology regrowing human skin and corneas from samples inserting an cochlear implant transplanting melanin-producing cells using ultrasound to break up clouded areas of the eye's lens Evolution of the Senses in Other Animals Snakes have the ability to see infared or heat. Fish have two "inner" ears with no direct fluid connection to their environment. Frogs can sense chemical changes in the area with their nostrils that tell them food or predators are near. Generally, frogs use their nostrils for breathing more than smelling. People believe sponges have no sensory organs. Your ears help you maintain balance. However, when you spin around multiple times quickly, the fluid in your cochlea is still moving after you finish. The brain believes this rather than your eyes causing the things you are looking at to move around. Maintaining Homeostasis Receptors in the skin pick up changes in touch, pressure, and temperature and transmit those to the brain. The brain then decides how to maintain homeostasis, such as sweating or shivering. The senses help tell the brain what is happening in its surroundings, and the brain responds in some way that maintains homeostasis inside the body. The nose and mouth tell what is going into the body based on chemicals. The body then adjusts, like sending more blood to the digestive tract after a big meal, thus maintaining homeostasis within the body. Body System Interdependency The eyes depend on the muscular system to be able to focus and adjust their location and size of the pupil. The sensory organs depend on the nervous system for the information given to be processed and actions sent out through the nerves. The ears depend on the skeletal system for the anvil, stirrups, and hammer to correctly vibrate and pass those onto the cochlea. The nose depends on the digestive system to destroy the pathogens that are sent to the stomach with mucus. The immune system depends on the nose to make mucus which can capture pathogens that come from the air breathed in through the nose. The respiratory system depends on the nose to prevent pathogens from entering the trachea. The sensory organs depend on the circulatory system for a constant source of nutrients and oxygen. The sensory system depends on the integumentary system to be able to sense heat, cold, pressure, and pain. Works Cited Tiny muscles regulate the size of the iris. In dim light, the iris is larger then in bright light.
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