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Basic Syntax

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by

Patrick Farrell

on 12 April 2016

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Transcript of Basic Syntax

N
Constituent Structure
& English
Syntax

N'
smart
really
Adv
DP
from
my
high school
A'
N
psychology
student
P
N
student
student
one
to know about something like this
COMPLEMENT
ADJUNCT MODIFIER
HEAD
I was talking about

[DP
THIS

[NP

really smart psychology student from my high school
]]
, not that
ONE
.
The head N is not a phrase
Lexical categories
Noun (N), Verb (V), Preposition (P), Adjective (A), Determiner (D), Adverb (Adv), etc.
Phrase structure
A single template, structured around lexical categories that function as the heads (or key parts), is used for all kinds of phrases.
Constituency
Syntax works in terms of the constituent parts in the phrase structure shells.
often
very
Adv
DP
on
V'
P
ADJUNCT MODIFIER
CONTRASTIVE FOCUS
with pseudocleft construction:
Only a

phrasal constituent

can be in the focus position

V
study
HEAD
notes
N
N'
ADJUNCT MODIFIER
N'
A
A'
N'
ADJUNCT MODIFIER
ADJUNCT modifier
AP
D'
who does this
allomorph of
study
+ suffix
-ent
student from my high school
this really smart psychology
The
constituents
of phrases are
complete pieces
that are
wholly contained
within them.

I was talking about
[DP
this
[NP
really smart psychology

[N
student
]

from MY high school
]]
,
not that really dumb physics

ONE

from your high school.
NP
N'
I was talking about
[DP
this
[NP
[N'
really smart psychology student
]

from MY high school
]]
,
not that
ONE

from yours.
abbreviated structure
DP
really smart psychology student
HEAD
this
D
singular N
really smart psychology
COMPLEMENT
V'
NP
N
COMPLEMENT
HEAD
COMPLEMENT
my
D'
DP
psychology
my psychology notes
V'
D
HEAD
Adv'
What I don't do
[VP very often ___ ]
is

[V'

study my psychology notes on the bus
]


the
bus
ADJUNCT MODIFIER
psychology notes on the bus
very often study my
VP
Adv
Adv'
abbreviated structure
student from my high school
study my psychology
notes on the bus
What I don't do
[VP very often ___ on the bus ]
is

[V'

study my psychology notes
]


my psychology notes
study
What I don't do
[VP very often ___ my psychology notes on the bus ]
is

[V
study
]

the head V is not itself a phrase
*
*
The pronoun

ONE

can only refer back to or get its value from a

phrasal constituent

of category N (i.e.,

N'

or

NP
).
What I don't do
[VP very often ___ the bus ]
is

[?
study my psychology notes on
]

*
ON is wholly contained in the PP constituent
and does not form a constituent with this
AdvP
PP
ADJUNCT MODIFIER
very often
on the bus
Moi?
No way.
What I especially like is

N' AP N'
N' N N
AP A'
A' Adv A'
A' A
N' N' PP
NP N'
DP D'
D' D NP
V' V DP
V' V' PP
Phrase structure rules
VP V'
V' AdvP V'
V' AdvP V'
You really like chocolate, right?
Especially chocolate mousse.
N' AP N'
N' N N
AP A'
A' Adv A'
A' A
N' N' PP
NP N'
DP D'
D' D NP
V' V DP
N' N N'
N
student
PP
of
HEAD
psychology
P
DP
complement
complement
N'
HEAD
Grammar as science
Click to play
or find on YouTube
playlist for this course.
Video reading that covers the same stuff in a slightly different way.

Click to play
or find on YouTube
playlist for this course.
By Patrick Farrell
For my Introduction to Linguistics course
on Canvas: https://canvas.instructure.com/courses/886316

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.
Full transcript