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Janae Wesley

on 3 September 2013

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what is critical thinking?
Alex- cognitive biases
Truth and Knowledge
Christina S.
Cognitive Bias
A psychological factor that unconsciously affects belief information.
- Happens when an individual tends to hold on their preference & beliefs on a matter rather than evaluating the criteria.
- Psychologists study C.B. because it deals with ones memory, decision making and reasoning.
Belief Bias
One evaluates an argument by how believable its conclusion is.
Availability Heuristics
Definition of Heuristics: General rules we unconsciously follow in estimating probabilities.
Unconsciously assigning a probability to a event on the basis of how much one thinks of such events.
Related to
false consensus effect
assuming that the views held by members of our groups are held by society at large.
Bandwagon Effect
Negativity Bias
People tend to go along with what others do or think without considering their actions
Tendacy people have to weight negative information more than positive information
Loss Aversion
Strongly motivated to avoid a loss than accrue a gain.
What is Knowledge?

Knowledge is based off of having justification (premises) for a conclusion that is true or false. For example: A house is on fire. 1. There are flames in the house. 2.There is smoke coming out of the house. 3.The fire department is at the house. Therefore, the house is on fire. The premises supported the conclusion, making it true.
What is Truth?

According to philosophy, Truth is considered a belief of something that is determined from the obvious. For example: The grass in our yard is green, 1. It is true that the grass in our yard is green,2. It is a fact that the grass in our yard is green, so therefore the grass in our yard is green. This belief of the green grass is legitimate, being that we can see what color it is just by looking at it. We know what color green is and we can simply infer that the grass is this color.

Quick Exercise:
Identify Which statements below are based off of truth and which ones are based off of knowledge. If the statement is based off of knowledge, what premise (or evidence) could have been drawn from this conclusion?

1. I have one bottle of water and one bottle of soda.

2. The door to my car is broken.

3. I am out of gas.

4. The floor in the room is brown.
The following video, "Why I hate school but love Education," discusses reasons as to why we go to school, why we may hate it, and why Education is so important either way.

Critical thinking is the process of independently analyzing, synthesizing, and evaluating information as a guide to behavior, and beliefs.
Critical thinking skills include the ability to interpret, verify, and reason. All of which involve applying the principles of logic.
Because our decisions reflect our conclusions, we can simplify things by saying that the purpose of critical thinking is to come to correct conclusions.
Beliefs-a belief is obviously something you believe. So therefore speaking concluding involves believing.
Claims- When a belief (judgement, opinion) is asserted in a declarative sentence, the result is a claim or statement.
Objective Claims & Facts
An objective claim is a statement about a factual matter-one that can be proved true or false.
-Taipei 101 is the world's tallest building.
-Five plus four equals ten.
-There are nine planets in the solar system.
*Just because something is objective does not mean it's true.
Subjective Claims & Opinions
A subjective claim is not a factual matter; it is an expression of belief, opinion, or personal reference. It can not be proved right or wrong by any generally accepted criteria.
Can often express opinions, preferences, values, feelings, and judgement.
-Trout tastes better than catfish.
-Touching a spider is scary.
-Venus Williams is the greatest athlete of this decade.
-Hamsters make the best pets.
Moral Subjectivism
The doctrine that all knowledge is limited to experiences by the self, and that transcendent knowledge is impossible.
moral subjectivists says, its a matter of opinion, and one opinion is as correct as the next.
An issue is simply a question.
Example: Is Christina taller than Lidia?
The issue is then raised: whether Christina is taller than Lidia.
We are considering whether the claim "Christina is taller than Lidia" is true.
Sometimes questions or issues are objective, meaning they are independent of what people think.
"Is Christina taller than Lida?" is an objective question.
Other issues, such as, whether Janae dresses well, are subjective.
Meaning it is based on the opinion of others.
Example: All dogs are mammals
All mammals have four legs
Therefore all dogs have four legs
Example: Marketing can achieve greater sales if they use opinion leaders whom others are likely to follow to endorse their product.
Example: In a work field environment a manager may restrict your opportunities to new jobs due to previous mistakes.
Definition of A.H:
In Group Bias
A predisposition to find fault with outsiders..

Fundamental Attribution Error:
To not appreciate others behavior is as much constrained by events and circumstances as our own would be if we were in their position.
Obediance to Authority
Tendacy to comply with instructions from an authority even when they conflict with our values
Overconfidence Effect
A tendacy to overestimate the percentage of correct answers we have given to questions on a subject we are not experts about
When most of a group rate themselves as better than most of the group relative to some desirable characteristics
Better Than Average Illusion
Example: -I eat healthy foods such as vegetables and grains and stay away from fatty foods and because I think its important everyone does too.

Example: We as humans would rather not lose $5 dollars than randomly finding $5 dollars on the ground.
Example: Being the new kid in school.
Example: Say you say hi to someone and they give you a hello like they do not know you. You react by saying "jerk" or something along those lines. To continue, you just made the F.A.E. They acted this way because maybe their mad about a failed test or whatever the case may be resulting in them acting differently.
Example: Psychologist Stanley Milgram and the obedience study.
Example: Many contestants appear totally convinced they will be crowned the next American Idol and are speechless when the judges inform them they cannot so much carry a tune.
Example: In a work environment where one may think their intelligence, memory and job performance is greater than others.
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