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Mughal Architecture

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by

Noor Khudher

on 11 July 2014

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Transcript of Mughal Architecture

Baluster column
.
It was found in Shah jahan's contributions to the three fortress-palaces; Agra, Lahore and Delhi.
Composed of four parts; Base, a pot-like element, shaft and Capitals.
Red sandstone
White Marble
Mughal Architecture
Decoration was presented in several ways
on the buildings through :
Calligraphy
Muqarnas
Stone carving
Calligraphy
was used around the gate of the Iwan, as well as under cornices and around the arches surrounding the building.
Mughal Empire
Its a muslim dynasty of Turkic-Mongol origin that ruled most of northern india from the early 16th c to the mid 18th c.
It was founded by a changatai Turkic prince called Babur.
The name "mughal" derived from homelands of Timurids which was conquered by Genghis Khan and so it is known as Moghulistan "Land of Mongols"
Humayan's Tomb
Taj Mahal
Baked Brick
Taj Mahal
Humayan's Tomb
Shaikh Salim's Chisti
Tomb
minarets are attached to buildings.
cylindrical construction with internal staircases and balconies leading to the conical roof.
Base
pot-like
element
shaft
Capital
built for aesthetic reasons, as well as to place Mashrabiya windows and to reduce the extend of sunlight pouring into the building.
Types; Scalloped, Tudor "four-centered arch".
Scalloped arch
Tudor arch
Taj Mahal
Humayan's Tomb
Akbar Tomb
Calligraphy
Muqarnas
Stone carving
Stalactite like decoration commonly used under arches, especially under the vaults of the Iwan.
Quwwat Al-Islam Mosque
Qutob Minar
Built to resemble a gateway, and it is used extensively for both religious and secular buildings.
Taj Mahal
Buland Darwaza
Jami Masjid
Gardens
Significant use of rectilinear layouts within the walled enclosures.
Influenced by the Persian garden style.
Taj Mahal Garden
Agra Fort Garden
windows
surrounded with iwans.
work as a balconi.
Red Fort
Akbars' Tomb
Taj Mahal
Jali screens create a private space while producing patterns of light.
Installed on outer walls, they were ideal for cutting down glare while allowing air to circulate.
During the day, the reflection of the patterns would move across the floor creating a patterned, visual delight
Amber Fort
Sheesh Mahal
Jali
Jali
Jharokhas
overhanging - enclosed or semi enclosed
projecting window from the wall, in an upper storey, overlooking a street, market, court or any other open space.
mainly used in Palaces
Chajja: platform as a roof with different tiers and detaild caving. some times they can be arched depending on the shape of the balcony.
Decorative columns to support the overhanging with motifs carved out
Railing with decorative floral pattern and animal symbols.
Brackets to support with carves designs and playing of mass
Noor Khudher
Halah AlEssa

Moonlight Garden
Ornamental Pool
Tomb
Mosque
Guest House
Taj Gani (Bazar)
Main Gate
Forecourt
Servents' quarters
Royal
Tomb
Shah Jahan was planning to construct another Taj Mahal in black marble on the other side of the river.
Outside its walls, there are smaller tombs of other shah jahan's wives.
Depending on time of the day, the reflecting stone changes color.
http://natgeotv.com/in/secrets-of-the-taj-mahal/about
http://www.liveindia.com/tajmahal/details.html
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taj_Mahal
http://www.youtube.com " 10 facts you don't know (Taj Mahal)"
carved stones, usually of marble, are sometimes inlaid with semi-precious stones. Arabesques or Geometrical designs are carved directly into the rock.
Jharokhas
www.Archnet.org
Book: Islam Art and Architecture, by Markus Hattstein, Peter Delius

http://starsinsymmetry.com/2010/09/15/study-the-characteristics-of-persian-and-mughal-architecture/
http://www.kaladarshana.com/essays/essay-islamic-mughal.html
After construction, Shah Jahan was put under house arrest by his son.
References
- Proportions
- Materials
- Domes
- Minarets
- Columns
- Arches
- Surface treatment
- Fenestration
- Iwans
-Gardens
- Construction Techniques


Introduction
Features
Outline
Bulbous dome
Domes sit on top of a cylindrical drum, before tapering to a point and decorated with a finial.
Sometimes multiple smaller domes decorate the rooftops of the buildings.
All buildings are symmetrical creating a mirror-like effect.
Most of the buildings follow the
Golden section method.
Taj Mahal
References
Columns
Minarets
Materials
Domes
Propotions
Arches
Surface
treatment

Iwans
Fenestration
Most of the buildings are of post and lintel construction, arches being used very sparingly.
The use of the double dome, a recessed archway inside a rectangular fronton, and parklike surroundings are all typical of Shāh Jahān period buildings.
Qutb Minar and Quwwat AlIslam Mosque under construction
Construction Technique
Millions of bricks were baked on site.
Over 1000 elephants were used to transport materials.
Over 20,000 workers including the best craftsmen of the Empire.
The Taj Mahal is widely recognized as "the jewel of Muslim art in India and one of the universally admired masterpieces of the world's heritage.
Taj Mahal Site Plan
Taj Mahal Section
Taj Mahal

Dhan'yavāda
Thank you
Full transcript