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Option 1: Abnormal psychology for the IB

Review for option 1; 'abnormal psychology' for the IB diploma. If you like these notes then please become a fan of IB notes on facebook for more similar styled notes.
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on 3 May 2011

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Transcript of Option 1: Abnormal psychology for the IB

Abnormal psychology Examine the concepts of normality and abnormality Discuss validity and relability of diagnosis Discuss cultural and ethical considerations in diagnosis Describe symptoms and prevalence of one disorder from two of the following groups:
Anxiety disorders
Affective disorders
Eating disorders Analyze etiologies (in terms of biological, cognitive and/or sociocultural factors) of one disorder from two of the following groups: Eating disorders - bulimia Sociocultural factors: Media gives ideas to what a 'perfect' body looks like
Mostly prevelant in Western countries
Prevelant in females
Not necessarily the thought of being the wrong shape but rather the thought that thin models and actors are acepted as normal and attractive that drive to eating disorders Cognitive factors: Low self-esteem
Extreme need for self-control
Control over eating becomes a measure of self-worth
Distorted perception when measuring 'success' of dieting
Attentional bias to negative body features
Brunch's body-image distortion hypothesis
Cognitive disinhibition Biological factors: In all twin studies, the concordance rate for MZ twins is higher than for DZ twins
Increased serotonin levels decreases food intake
The Set Point Theory suggests an imbalance in the relative influences of the ventromedial or laternal areas of the hypothalamus (prooved to affect rats' eating habits) Affective disorders - Major depression Biological factors: Genetic vulnerability (diathesis-stress model)
Higher concordance rates between MZ than DZ twins
Low levels of noradrenaline causes depression-like symptoms
Cortisol is found in big amounts in stressed as well as depressed people
Low levels of serotonin is, proved by the treatment of depression, connected to the illness Cognitive factors: Irrational and illogical thinking
Inferences about meanings of events can lead to false conclusions that cause anger/depression
E.g.: I don't have a job - thus I'm stupid
Negative thoughts, pessi-mism and extreme self-criticism can lead to depression Sociocultural factors: Vulnerability model: traumatic events in life can cause depression but not all depressed people experience something dramatic
Culture-bound? Chinese people seek help for headaches, restlessness and fatigue (but not depression), the symptoms that in Western countries are connected to depression Anxiety disorders - Post Traumatic Stress Disorder Biological factors: High levels of noradrenaline cause people to express emotions more openly
Patients have high levels of noradrenaline
Stimulation of adrenal systems often causes panic attacks/flashbacks
Could be genetically predispositional but has not been proven for sure Cognitive factors: Feelings of guilt and lack of control over disordered life; learning that rape/car accidents etc. was not ones own fault solves a lot
Intrusive/traumatic memories may come to consciousness when smell/sound/setting is similar to the traumatic event Sociocultural factors: Exposure to racism and life threats may predisposing factors
Social learning theory may play a role in developing PTSD (watching domestic violence can cause development of symptoms) Anxiety disorders
Affective disorders
Eating disorders Useful books, page numbers etc. (used for this) Oxford Revision Guides: Page: 211, 213 Psychology; course companion Page: 150-164 Psychology - Pearson Page: 176-177 Cultural differences: Western countries: Girls play with dolls until they're 10-12
Do not wear face masks Other countries: Children have to work for the family at an early age
May wear face masks to prevent inhaling of pollution The bell curve Obesity
Intelligence
Height Not all people 'outside' curve is abnormal
Not all people 'outside' curve is dysfunctional Outlines to determine whether people are abnormal or not: Suffering
Maladaptiveness
Irrationality
Unpredictability
Vividness and unconventionality
Observer comfort
Violation of moral Experience distress and/or discomfort? Behaves in a way that makes life harder rather than easier? Is incomprehensible or cannot communicate in a proper manner? Act in unexpected ways? Different experiences than other people? Does things that others find embarrassing/hard to watch? Habitually breaks accepted ethical and moral standards of ones culture? Instances where diagnoses are faulty because of doctors' lack of knowledge of other cultures Jahoda's mental health criteria: Would work if there were no cultural differences! Efficient self-perception
Realistic self-esteem and acceptance
Voluntary control of behaviour
True perception of the world
Sustaining relationships and giving affection
Self-direction and productivity Criticism: Not very well defined
With this criteria, everyone would be diagnosed abnormal at some point in life
1. Mental disorders overlap and are similar 3. Diagnosess are based on subjective responses from patients 2. Abnormal behaviour is not universal 4. Clinicians may be biased Psychiatrists is New York were twice as likely to diagnose schizophrenia as psychiatrists in London who were twice as likely to diagnose depression or mania 100 patients' mental disorders were reassessed. 89 were re-diagnosed as schizophrenic Only 16 had originally been diagnosed as schizophrenic 50 were re-diagnosed with depression Only 15 had originally been diagnosed as depressed So: diagnosis of abnormal behaviour is biased In different cultures, many people:
Get angry in different kinds of situations
Laugh at (in)appropriate situations
Say (in)appropriate things
Use different kind of sign language
Etc.
...that may cause misunderstandings/ 'abnormal' behaviour Social desirability bias
Hawthorne effect
Patients may express the same symptoms in different ways 2 psychiatrists were given the same patients to diagnose Chance of diagnosing the same disorder: Obsessive compulsive disorder:
Generalized anxiety disorder: 80 %
57% Rosenhan (1973) 8 healthy researchers tried to get into mental hospitals across the USA
Claimed to hear unclear voices
7 got in as schizophrenic
After getting in, they claimed the voices to have disappeared
Took the researchers an average of 19 days to get out
'Schizophrenia in remission' Called mental hospitals to warn about pseudo-patients
41 real patients were with confidence judged as pseudo-patients by at least one member of staff
19 of the real patients were suspected of being frauds Some behaviours can be (ab)normal depending on the situation: The researchers took notes all the time which was seen as abnormal paranoia
The researchers walked back and forth in the hallways out of boredom; seen as sign of distess Evaluation: Diagnoses are not (nearly) always reliable
The most accurate details about culture and situation are needed to make an as accurate diagnosis as possible
Diagnoses are not always valid :) Clinicians should know as much about the patient's culture as possible before making a diagnosis (otherwise it might get faulty)
Could ask a colleague
Could read up on it
Could ask the patient directly Bilingual patients should be consulted in both languages: Suggested that patients may use one of the languages as a form of resistance to avoid intense emotional responses
Patients should be consulted by a bilinguist clinician or
Patients should be consulted with the help of an interpreter, specialized in mental health Cultural bias: American psychologists were shown videos of African-Americans vs. European- Americans that were either depressed or not
All non-depressed were 'diagnosed' so
The depressed African-American were said to be more negative and less socially competent than the European-Americans Behaviour may be (ab)normal depending on the culture:
In China, only people with severe social and emotional incompetence that are indisputably mentally disordered are labelled as such Ethical considerations: Institutionalization: The Bell Curve: Demonstrated a difference in IQ scores between black and white Americans
Demonstrated a difference in IQ scores between socio-economic classes
Ethical towards the less advantaged to publish such results?
May cause money to be spent on helping and encouraging only the 'intelligent' ones Stigmatization: Calling someone 'schizophrenic' instead of 'someone with schizophrenia'
Socially excluding people with mental disorders
In some culture, being diagnosed is like being looked down at Self-fulfulling prophecy: When starting to act or behave the way one 'is supposed to'
People that are labelled as depressed may increase symptoms because they are 'supposed to be' like that
People that refuse to believe in their diagnose are likely to recover faster See: Rosenhan's study
When a patient is taken for granted to have a mental disorder
All actions may be seen as symptoms to doctors
Can cause faulty diagnosis Can be displayed in:
Powerlessness
Lack of rights
Little privacy
Depersonalization
Verbal or physical abuse by attendants Discuss cultural and gender variations in prevalence of disorders. Examine biomedical, individual and group approaches to treatment. Evaluate the use of biomedical, individual and group approaches to the treatment of one disorder. Discuss the use of eclectic approaches to treatment. Discuss the relationship between etiology and therapeutic approach in relation to one disorder. To what extent do biological, cognitive and sociocultural factors influence abnormal behaviour?• Evaluate psychological research (that is, theories and/or studies) relevant to the study of abnormal behaviour. Irrational and illogical thinking
Inferences about meanings of events can lead to false conclusions that cause anger/depression
E.g.: I don't have a job - thus I'm stupid
Negative thoughts, pessi-mism and extreme self-criticism can lead to depression Low levels of noradrenaline causes depression-like symptoms
Cortisol is found in big amounts in stressed as well as depressed people
Low levels of serotonin is, proved by the treatment of depression, connected to the illness Sociocultural factors: Cognitive factors: Biological factors: Vulnerability model: traumatic events in life can cause depression but not all depressed people experience something dramatic
Culture-bound? Chinese people seek help for headaches, restlessness and fatigue (but not depression), the symptoms that in Western countries are connected to depression Major depressive disorder: Recall some of the etiologies: Related therapeutic approaches: Selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRI): Prevents serotonin from being re-taken up and thus serotonin is left to function in the synaptic gap for longer.
Focuses on decreasing symptoms. Cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT): Focuses on changing negative/irrational thinking patterns.
Focuses on dealing with the root of the disorder Group therapy Major depressive disorder: Anorexia nervosa: Post traumatic stress disorder Women more likely to be diagnosed because:
They internalize problems (results in depression)
While men tend to externalize problems (such as alcohol abuse, aggressive behaviour)
Depression more prevalent in Western cultures because:
Western tendency to diagnose depression
Individualistic cultures more likely to make use of the health care
While collective cultures (e.g. the Chinese) would consult a relative
People in some cultures seek help because they can't sleep, have headaches etc. which is considered depression-like symptoms More prevalent in (young) women because:
Their ideal body image is more likely to be different from their own body than boys' bodies and their ideal body image People may become more optimistic when they hear that others in the same position have improved More prevalent in Western cultures because:
Of media gives an idea of what a 'perfect' body should look like
They are more exposed to the media
In some non-Western cultures, it is seen as the family is resourceful (higher class and/or rich) if you have a bit fat Slightly more prevelant in women
50% of PTSD patients are rape victims
Only 20% of PTSD patients are war veterans
Most patients have lost a loved one
Don't forget to study these learning outcomes! That was all : (-
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