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The Colonial Period

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Khadijah White

on 29 July 2014

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Transcript of The Colonial Period

Enough is Enough...Time to Fight BACK! (1676)
"The Boston Massacre"
"We Fell Victim"
$1.25
Civil Liberties, Governmental Interference, & Retaliation
The Boston Massacre
Bacon's Rebellion
The French & Indian War
The Sugar & Stamp Acts
The Boston Tea Party
Fighting Back!
This tragic event in history is also known as the Seven Years' War. Although Britain and French began fighting in 1754, the war did not officially begin until 1756. This heated battle that killed more men than the American Revolution was a direct link to control of North America. While the French claimed the Ohio River Valley, Britain expanded their territory as well. It was not until the French began to claim land that had already been ceased and accounted for by Britain that the fight between the two escalated.
The Stamp Act
Required ever American colonist to pay taxes on each piece of printed paper they used
Money was used to help pay the costs of defending the American frontier
Viewed as a direct attempt to raise money without the approval of the colonial legislatures
One of the most famous acts of early American resistance is the Boston Tea Party.
After British retracted all of the Townsend Acts they left one act in place just to prove they had a right to tax the colonies.
British began to tax but soon after they realized the colonists still refused to pay those taxes.
As a way to encourage colonists to pay taxes the British gave the East India Company a monopoly over tea imports in America .

After the resentment of the Townsend Act by Boston colonists, British officials were forced to hold their ground to ensure that they were complying to their rules.
On March 5, 1770, the inevitable happened. An angry mob full of colonists approached the British soldiers that stood in front of the Customs House.
Neither group was at ease with each others presence. It was not until the angry mob began to throw rocks and snowballs at the British soldiers that triggered a vicious response.
The Bloodiest American War
1764-1765
British attempts to exploit the Americans (1773)
A result of Snowballs
Continued...
The Colonial Period
Shay's Rebellion
In 1787 intensity grew in the rural and newly settled areas of Massachusetts.
Many farmers in this area suffered from high debt as they tried to start new farms.
As a result of the economic crisis local sheriffs seized many farms and some farmers who couldn't pay their debts were imprisoned.
As a result the first major armed rebellion broke out.
The farmers in western Massachusetts organized their resistance by calling special meetings of the people to protest conditions.
1650-1790
It first started when social unrest began growing under the stern governorship of Sir William Berkeley. England's War with Dutch cut into the tobacco trade which resulted in enemy ships entering Chesapeake Bay. Unfree tobacco workers were defined as indentured European servants totaling 6,000 plus. Enslaved Africans accounted for nearly 2,000. In 1676 Virginia finally reached a breaking point. As a result taxes were increased to pay for fortifications and servant plots. The governor feared the hostile views of the free men who did not own property so he took away their right to vote. There was no election in the next 14 years. Wealthy newcomer Nathaniel Bacon arrived and immediately gained access to Berkeley's circle. Unfortunately everyone did not like his arrival. Rivals denied him license to engage in fur trade.
In the heat of the confusing melee, the British fired without Captain Thomas Preston's command.
Five men were killed, including, Crispus Attucks, a former slave.
The Sugar Act
Intended to raise revenue to repay England's national debt
Imposed duties on a number of goods including molasses and other forms of sugar
The enforced tax on molasses caused the almost immediate decline in the rum industry in the colonies.
The Boston Tea Party....Continued
Declaratory Act of 1766
Enacted at the same time that the Stamp Act was repealed
Passed by the British parliament to affirm its power to legislate for the colonies
Stated that Parliament's authority was the same in America as in Britain and asserted Parliament's authority to pass laws that were binding on the American colonies
Townshend Acts of 1767
A series of laws which set new import taxes on British goods including paint, paper, lead, glass and tea
Revenues were used to maintain British troops in America as well as pay the salaries of Royal officials who were appointed to work in the American colonies
Included The Revenue Act, The Indemnity Act , The Commissioners of Customs , The Vice Admiralty Court and The New York Restraining
Tax on imports

Frontier tension then erupted into racial violence, and Bacon threw himself into the conflict.
His frontier followers, eager for land, killed Occaneechi and Susquehonok.
The governor refused to sanction these raids and believed it was a direct result of Metacom's War.
He also feared in particular " A general combination of all the Indians against us."
As Bacon's army grew Berkeley retreated across Chesapeake Bay and hid on Virginia's eastern shore.
Slaves and indentured servants took advantage of the breakdown in public controls to leave their masters and join Bacon.
Bacon's army burned Jamestown to the ground . In October Bacon passed and Berkeley returned from the shore.
Black and white workers struck fear in the governors heart because they were now unified.
From then on Virginia's gentry applied themselves to dividing the races and creating a labor force made up of African Slaves.
Bacon's Rebellion Continued.....
The American colonists feared that the act’s effect would be to increase the price of rum manufactured in New England, thus disrupting the latter’s exporting capacity.
The Molasses Act was among the least effective of the British Navigation acts, since it was largely circumvented through smuggling.
Continued....
The French & Indian War
Continued....
In 1754 George Washington and troops were sent to Virginia to evict the French from Dutch territory. During the first two years of the war the French were undefeated. In 1756 Britain under a new Secretary of State would apply more resources into battle that would later win them French forts. From that point on Britain dominated over the French.In 1763 the war officially came to an end with the signing of the Treaty of Paris.
Continued....
Virginia House of Burgesses adopted Patrick Henry's Stamp Act Resolves
These resolves declared that the English had the right to be taxed only by their own representatives
The Stamp Act

The Sugar Act
Merchants were required to pay a tax of six pence per gallon on the importation of foreign molasses
The situation disrupted the colonial economy by reducing the markets to which the colonies could sell, and the amount of currency available to them for the purchase of British manufactured goods.
Provided the British with a broad mandate to impose laws, and taxes, on the American colonies.
Within a year of the passing of the Declaratory Act new trade laws were imposed on America
Continued....
Continued...
Charles Townshend believed that considerable revenue could be raised by placing taxes on wine, oil, glass, lead, painter's colors, and tea that was imported to the American colonies
The colonists responded by refusing to buy the products
Townshend Acts of 1767
British also tried to reduce the amount of taxes colonists had to pay but even that did not make them change their minds.
As a message to British, 200 men dressed as indians boarded the three East India Company ships, cracked open the barrels of tea and tossed them overboard.
Three hours later every ounce of tea had been dumped into the Boston Harbor .
Soon after, events began to turn into a full-scale revolt when Daniel Shays, a former captain in the Continental Army, took leadership.
James Bowdoin, the governor, would organize his own military that would crush the rebels.
In the next election Bowdoin would see that his voters had turned against him as a result of beating the rebels.
Continued....
The Colonial Period
Created by :Khadijah White
North Carolina Central University

Department of History

United States History to 1865

MWF 10:00a.m

Spring 2014
of 1733
The Molasses Act
British law that imposed a tax on molasses, sugar, and rum
Imported from non-British foreign colonies into the North American colonies.
Aimed at reserving a practical monopoly of the American sugar market to British West Indies sugarcane growers
The American colonists protested the act, claiming that the British West Indies alone could not produce enough molasses to meet the colonies’ needs.
Navigation Acts
Conclusion
The Navigation Acts were acts of Parliament intended to promote the self-sufficiency of the British Empire by restricting colonial trade to England and decreasing dependence on foreign imported goods.The series of Navigation Acts were seen as a detriment to the American colonies and sewed the seeds of dissension and rebellion in the colonies. At the start of the American Revolution most of colonial traders were involved in smuggling to avoid restrictions placed on trade by the Navigation Acts. The Navigation Acts were repealed in 1849.
of 1764
The Currency Act
The colonies suffered a constant shortage of currency with which to conduct trade.
There were no gold or silver mines and currency could only be obtained through trade as regulated by Great Britain.
Many of the colonies felt no alternative to printing their own paper money in the form of Bills of Credit. But because there were no common regulations and in fact no standard value on which to base the notes, confusion resulted.
There was no standard value common to all of the colonies. British merchant-creditors were very uncomfortable with this system, not only because of the obvious complexity, but because of the rapid depreciation of the notes due to regular fluctuations in the colonial economy.
On September 1, 1764, Parliament passed the Currency Act, effectively assuming control of the colonial currency system.
Continued....1764
The Currency Act
The act prohibited the issue of any new bills and the reissue of existing currency.
Parliament favored a "hard currency" system based on the pound sterling, but was not inclined to regulate the colonial bills. Rather, they simply abolished them.
The colonies protested vehemently against this.
They suffered a trade deficit with Great Britain to begin with and argued that the shortage of hard capital would further exacerbate the situation.
The Editors of Encyclopædia Britannica.
"Molasses Act (Great Britain [1733])." Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Encyclopedia Britannica, n.d. Web. 16 Mar. 2014.

"The Currency Act." Ushistory.org. Independence Hall Association, n.d. Web. 18 Mar. 2014.

The Editors of Encyclopædia Britannica.
"Iron Act (Great Britain [1750])." Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Encyclopedia Britannica, n.d. Web. 18 Mar. 2014.

"Navigation Acts." ***. N.p., n.d. Web. 14 Mar. 2014.

"Shays' Rebellion." Ushistory.org. Independence Hall Association, n.d. Web. 21 Mar. 2014.

"Declaratory Act." Of 1766 ***. N.p., n.d. Web. 21 Mar. 2014.

"Townshend Acts." Of 1767 ***. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 Mar. 2014.

"French and Indian War 1754-1763." The French and Indian War. N.p., n.d. Web. 21 Mar. 2014.

"History.org: The Colonial Williamsburg Foundation's Official History and Citizenship Website."
A Summary of the 1765 Stamp Act : The Colonial Williamsburg Official History & Citizenship Site. N.p., n.d. Web. 21 Mar. 2014.

"The Boston Massacre." Ushistory.org. Independence Hall Association, n.d. Web. 20 Mar. 2014.

"1773 The Boston Tea Party." Massachusetts AFL-CIO. N.p., n.d. Web. 22 Mar. 2014.
Citations

Bacon's Rebellion
Conclusion
Bacon's Rebellion was the result of discontent among backcountry farmers who had taken the law into their own hands against government corruption and oppression. Many Virginians were debtors. Borrowing on the strength of paper money was stopped by the British Government, leading to more discontent against the merchant classes. Many of the supporters of the rebellion were indentured servants and slaves, who were a majority of Virginia's population


It was important because that was the first rebellion of the American colonies.
The Molasses Act

Conclusion
created a thriving new industry in southern port cities such as Charleston and Savannah.
eroded the profits of the West Indies sugar plantation owners and encouraged New England to export honey, a rival sweetener.
touched off political clashes between Britain and the colonies, foreshadowing a new era of imperial control.
angered Americans because it favored British molasses manufacturers.

The French and Indian War
Conclusion
It marked the beginning of conflicts between Great Britain and the American colonists. Because the war was so costly, Parliament decided it had to raise money in the colonies to pay for the part of the 7 Years War that took place in the American colonies (French and Indian War). The result was a crack down on smuggling in the colonies, collection of custom duties, and the resistance to these measures by the colonies . The conflict about representation in Parliament for the colonies began in earnest.
The Boston Tea Party
Conclusion
The Boston Tea Party is an important part of America’s history. The establishment of independence from Britain did not happen overnight. A series of events led to the American Revolution. A turning point in history occurred that December morning in 1773 when the colonists decided it was time to stand up against the injustices that the mother country of Great Britain had burdened them with. They began to fight back.
The Boston Massacre
Conclusion

The propaganda that it was a massacre made many colonists rally together to counter the "evil" British. It was a turning point for many colonists into fighting for independence from England.
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