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Stress: Challenges To Coping

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Stress and Health Chapter 13

on 18 November 2013

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Transcript of Stress: Challenges To Coping

Chapter 13: Stress and Health p.424
Stress- Any event that strains or exceed an individuals ablity to cope.
Leading causes of death like heart disease and strokes are almost always linked to stress.
What Causes Stress?
Negative Life Events... Positive Life Events....
- Violence War Assalt -Graduation
- Loss Of A Family Member - Job Promotion
- Natural Disasters - Expecting a child
- Terrorism - Moving into a new home.

Daily hassles- Debt, Tickets, Lateness,and etc.
Frustration- When we are not able to satisfy a motive.

Conflict- Occurs when two or more motives cannot be satisfied because they interfere with one another.

1. Approach-approach conflict- The individual must choose between two positive goals of approximately equal value.

2. Avoidance- avoidance Conflict- The individual must choose between two or more negatives outcomes.
What Causes Stress? Cont.
3. Approach-avoidance conflict- Arises when obtaining a positive goal necessitates a negative outcomes as well.

4. Multiple approach-avoidance conflict- Requires the individual to choose between alternatives that contain both negatives and positive consequences.
Pressure- Describes the stress that arises from threats of negative events.
Enviromental Conditions.
Stress: Challenges To Coping
- Bengt Arnetz of Havard University
- Mainly had white blood cells.

-Janice Kiecolt- Glaser of oh
What Cause Stress? Cont.
General Aspects of Stress Reactions
When we are under stress we feel it and we also react to it. There are two main points to stress reaction:
It creates both psychological reactions and physiological reactions, it does so through joint systems.
The psychological and physical reactions are very similar, although each source of stress causes coping reactions specific to it.
Changing Health-Related Behavior Patterns
The field of health psychology is used to improve the well-being of your body; such as learning to relax, not smoking, eating healthy, and exercising.
Learning to Relax
For a lot of people relaxation does not come easy. Progressive relaxation training helps people learn to deeply relax their main body muscles. This training also helps people learn how each muscle group feels tensed up and relaxed so that they understand the feeling of both.

This training has been found to help treat sleep problems, tension headaches, migraine headaches, general anxiety, and many other issues caused by stress.
What is Social Support?
Two Aspects of Social Support:

1. Someone to talk to.

2. Receiving advice and solace.
Someone to talk to:
This helps the person by "getting it of their chest"
People who "got it off their chest" reported being less ill and made fewer visits to a health center.
It is good for your health to share your negative feelings with someone, a close friend or family member.
Receiving advice and solace:
Most kinds of social support may actually be harmful.
Receiving advice and support from others sometimes makes the person feel incapable of handling their stresses and could feel more anxious and depressed.
Being there, being a good listener or asking questions on how things are going is more supportive than offering advice or criticizing them on how to deal with their stress.
The best "social support" comes from a trained psychotherapist, receiving psychotherapy will improve physical as well in emotional health.
Giving a helping hand.
Social Support:

The role played by friends and relatives in providing advice, assistance, and someone in whom to confide private feelings.
Predictability and Control
Predictability: An event can be less stressful when it is predictable than when it is not
Control: An event can be less stressful when a person feels he or she can have some type of control over the stress
Prior Experience with the Stress


- The reactions to stress do not affect a person as greatly, if they have been through some type of experience similar to it
- Example: “A soldier who goes into combat the fourth time will be less stressed than a soldier who goes for the first time”
- Studies have shown that prior experience will affect a person or animal less than if the stress occurred for the first time

Factors that Influence Reactions to Stress
- Every person reacts to stress differently
- Most people usually just get back up quickly and go on with their lives

Depending on age, the impact stress has on a person is different
- For example, "the effects of sexual abuse are more likely to leave victimized children with serious anxiety when the victim is younger (61% preschool children compared with 8% adolescents) but leads to more suicidal thinking in older children.(41% adolescents compared with no preschool children)"
- Therefore, developmental factors are partially responsible for the effect of any type of stress.
Developmental Factors
- For example, a person going home from work during rush hour will be less stressed because it is expected.
- In a study, three groups were administered mild electric shocks that measured their sympathetic autonomic arousal. Group one received a shock 95% on each 10 second count. Group two received a shock 50% on each count. Group three received it 5% of each count.
-Of course, group one was less stressed due to the predictability of when they would be shocked.
Predictability
- In another study, two groups of people participated in a difficult cognitive task, in which each error was punished with an electric shock. One group was able to control the situation by taking breaks whenever they pleased, while the other group could only take breaks when they were told to do so. Group one was able to be less stressed due to the fact they were able to control that stressful situaition.
- "We must have a pie. Stress cannot exist in the presence of a delicious pie." - David Mamet
- In animals, studies have shown that when stress in uncontrollable, there is a suppression in the proliferation of white blood cells.
- The white blood cells are important in the body's immune response and it exhibits less immunity to cancer cells.
What would happen if stress is uncontrollable in animals?
Control
Learn to Control
- It is highly important that we know how to control ourselves in stressful situations.
- When we learn how to control, then we know how to handle many stressful situations, and our stress will be less severe.
Physical Reactions to Stress and Health
General Adaption System
Canadian Medical researcher Hans Selye found the body mobilizes to ward off stress through a 3 stage pattern (GAS)
Stressful Events and emotions influence physical functioning of bodies.
1.) Alarm Reaction
2.) Resistance Stage
3.) Exhaustion Stage
Alarm reaction Stage
Body begins initial response to stress ("Fight or Flight")
Body uses store resources
Increased heart rate, increased blood rate, pulls blood away from digestion & into skelatal muscles.
Increase perspiration, prepares body for physical struggle
Prolonged stress gives rise to muscle tension, stomachaches, headaches, & feelings of sickness
Resistance Stage
Body's resources are used & resistance to stress is high.
The more stress encountered by the body the less the body is able to deal with stress & if depleted of resources the body leads to the third stage.
Exhaustion stage
If stress continues then the ability to fight off stress & infection is lowered.
Severe physical stress can cause death but Psychological stress rarely precipitates death but can cause "emotional exhaustion"
Stress, The GAS, & the Immune System
A negative aspect of stress is decreasing effectiveness of the Immune System.
Immune System
-the complex body system of defense to illness, such as white cells & natural killer cells of the blood.
Effect of stress on immune system was tested on volunteers and those with a above average number of life events developed upper respiratory infections than volunteers with below average number of life events.
Depression, Anxiety, & Health
"Stress gives rise to depression & anxiety in some persons & persons with high levels of depression & anxiety have impaired immune system functioning, poorer health, & higher rates of death from Cardiac disease." p.435
"Depression influences health through its effects on inflammation heart functions & the immune system" p.435
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