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Transcript of pain
Surface Stimuli (pain, touch)
Internal Stimuli (hormones) Our Senses The eye The eye develops as an out-pocket of the brain.
Delicate and carefully protected
-Skull protects eye itself
-Lids and eyelashes
-Tears Coats of the Eyeball Sclera- outer coat (white of the eye).
Choriod- middle coat (contains blood vessels).
Retina- innermost coat (many nerves and includes rods and cones). The Eye Light and The Eye As light passes through the eye it refracts (bends).
This lets a large amount of light to be focused on a small area (the retina). HOPE
Pressure, heat cold, pain, touch
Position and balance Rods are sensitive to light and function in dim light.
-Dark adaptation occurs when you enter the dark and the rods aren't functioning yet.
Cones function in bright light and are sensitive to color.
-three types of cones (red, green, blue).
- no cones = color blindness Parts of the eye Cornea- window to the eye. If you scratch it you could become blind. Corneal transplants are fairly common.
Iris- purpose is to contract around the pupil in bright light. or to expand if more light is needed. (dilation is when pupil appears larger).Ciliary Muscles contrac around the lens to focus objects. Eye Nerves Optic nerve-sends impulses to the brain.
Ophthalmic nerve- carries impulses of pain, touch and temperature to the brain. the eye The lacrimal gland provides fluid to the eye.
The nasolacrimal duct drains the eye. The Ear Three main
helps us hear
and maintains equilibrium. External ear External Ear canal is the opening in your ear.
Tympanic membrane (eardrum) is the boundary between and middle ear. Middle Ear Middle ear is small fattened sopace with three small bones. Connected to the pharynx.
the bones amplify sound and seand them to the internal ear. Internal Ear Hollowed space inside the temporal bone. Perilymph is fluid inside inner ear. Semcircular canals fluid filled areas that allow us to keep balanced and know where we are in space. Taste Taste buds are taste receptors.
-sweet (tip of tongue)
-sour (sides of tongue)
-salty (tip of tongue)
-bitter (back part of tongue) Smell Olfactory epithelium on nasal cavity.
Reason for sniffing is to bring smell up nose. Temperature Heat and cold receptors are different nerves.
Adaptations to temperature are rapid.
Adaptations to pain are slow. Pressure Deep receptors
Anesthetic does not numb them Pain Free nerve endings- not enclosed.
Referred pain- pain felt elsewhere
-liver-skin over right shoulder
-heart- left shoulder, left arm
Reason is that brain can't tell if pain is from surface or internal receptors so it assigns that pain to the most likely place.