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Peter The Great's Second Azov Campaign - 1696

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Sophie Wragg

on 4 March 2011

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Transcript of Peter The Great's Second Azov Campaign - 1696

Azov #2 - 1696 Why? What? Reasons? Conclusion Why did Peter the Great launch a second cmpaign in 1696? As in the 1695 campaign: To fulfill treaty obligations of the Holy Alliance in order to show Russia's strength As in the 1695 campaign: To recover Russian prestige lost during the Crimea campaigns in 1687 and 1689 under Sophia and Golytsin. As in the 1695 campaign: To ward off Turkish attacks on the Ukrane by the Tartars, and incerase his control over them As in the 1695 campaign: Religious beliefs that Christian Turks were trapped in a Muslim faith As in the 1695 campaign: To test his toy regiments which he had built up throughout his lifetime To avenge Russia's defeat in the 1695 Azov campaign As a first step in his overall aim of breaking through, and gaining access to, the Black Sea What happened during the 1696 Azov campaign? A massive naval fleet (25 galleys, 1,300 barges) was built at Voronezh on the river Don, with which Peter was personally involved. He physically helped to build the fleet and lived in a nearby log cabbin Peter's army was much smaller. 46, ooo Russians, 15, 000 Ukrane cossacks, 5,000 Don cossacks and 3, 000 Kalmyks all sailed down the Don under one commander, Alexis Shein. Lefort was made admiral of the navy and Peter joined the navy as a captain The army reached the watchtower forts above Azov and began fighting. The Don cossacks launched a night rade, capturing Turkish boats. The Turks fled into the open sea, and did not return to aid Azov. The Russian's had succeeded in cutting Azov off from its supply line Austrian engineers created earthworks so high that Russian guns were higher than the fortress walls. The Russians could fire down into the streets The Turks hadn't abholished the earthworks built by the Russians during the 1695 campaign. This saved the Russian's effort and valuable digging time - they could contuine where they left off and were able to but surround Azov by land and cut off its supplies by sea. Terms of surrender were offered to the Turks, but they refused A group of 2, 000 cossacks grew tired of digging the earthworks, and launched an uncommanded attack on the fortress. As a result, Azov surrendered to the Russians. Peter agreed that everyone could leave Azov freely, in return for Jacob Jensen, the traitor of the 1696 campaign. Jensen was returned to Peter Peter now had access to the sea of Azov (but not the Black sea). He built a ship yard at Tagonrog, and based his naval fleet there News of the Azov victory astonished Moscow Why was the campaign successful? Peter appointed one overall campaign commander - Alexis Shein The preparation was extensive, and the naval aspect was very well thought out Peter had thousands of troops at his disposal Turkish mistakes - they failed to destroy the previous earth works. Use of foreign advice, particuarly for the earthworks Use of new techniques, particuarly with the navy The Turks surrendered Significance of the 1696 Azov campaign There has been some debte about the response in Europe: Some say the victory sent a wave of admiration through Europe, and showed them Russia's increasing power Some say that Europe was indifferent to the victory - it wasn't that important It inspired Peter to continue with and expand the navy, as he only had access to the sea of Azov, and still needed to break through to the Black sea It began a new wave of conscription both into the navy and as laborers to build the shipyards and the boats It put pressure on both peasants and nobles. Particuarly the nobles as each noble had to personally build one ship More foreign help was needed for the ship building process It inspired Peter to send Russians abroad in order to be educated in new techniques and equipment Inspired Peter to go on the Great Embassy to publicise Russia's victory and gain an alliance against Turkey The Treaty of Constantinople was signed with the Turks in 1700: The Turks agreed to give Azov and Tagonrog to the Russians Peter agreed to destroy the forts that he built at the mouth of the Dneiper river durnig the first Azov campaign Russia had a permanent embassador in Constantinople 30 year truce between Russia and Turkey Peter turned his attnetion westward, towards Sweden, in what would be the start of the Great Northern War Historian - Herd - concludes that both Azov campaigns gave people an excuse to complain about Peter. However, this conclusion was based on one group of people - The Streltsy - whose revolt in 1698 forced Peter to return home early from his Great Embassy It helped shape Peter's image and captured the key themes of his reign: Reorganisation for war Reinvention of Russia as a modern central power Despite the success of the 1696 Azov campaign, Peter still didn't have access to the Black Sea
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