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Copy of Phenomenology and Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis: As approaches to research in Education

For Winter school designed by Rohan Nethsinghe
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Transcript of Copy of Phenomenology and Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis: As approaches to research in Education

Phenomenology and Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis: As approaches to research in Education
by A/Prof Jane Southcott & Dr Rohan Nethsinghe

What is Phenomenology
During the past century, different paradigms have taken birth due to the remarkable growth in social sciences research. There are mainly two paradigms to the verification of theoretical propositions, i.e. positivism and anti-positivism (or naturalistic inquiry) (Dash, 1993).
Anti-positivism which stresses on subjectivist approach to studying social phenomena attaches importance to a range of research techniques focusing on qualitative analysis, e.g. personal interviews, participant observations, account of individuals, personal constructs etc.
‘Phenomenology’ is a theoretical view point which believes that individual behaviour is determined by the experience gained out of one’s direct interaction with the phenomena. It rules out any kind of objective external reality. The historical movement of phenomenology is the philosophical tradition launched in the first half of the 20th century by Edmund Husserl, Martin Heidegger, Maurice Merleau-Ponty, Jean-Paul Sartre, et al. In that movement, the discipline of phenomenology was prized as the proper foundation of all philosophy. Husserl and Schutz are the main proponents of this school of thought.
What is Phenomenology
Phenomenological perspective
Types of phenomenology
Examples of use in Music Education
What is Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA)
Examples of use in Music Education
Researching lived experiences
Phenomenological Definitions
Husserl (1969) explained that phenomenological research seeks understanding through description of lived experience using distortions of history, culture and society, identifying the true nature or 'essence' of the human experiences
Smith (2009) defines phenomenology as a study of “phenomena”: appearances of things, or things as they appear in our experience, or the ways we experience things, thus the meanings things have in our experience, in other words how people make sense of their own experiences.
During interaction with various phenomena, human beings interpret them and attach meanings to different actions and or ideas and thereby construct new experiences. Therefore, the researcher has to develop empathic understanding to know the process of interpretation by individuals so that she can reproduce in her mind feelings, motives and thoughts that are behind the action of others.
Johnson and Christensen (2004) further describe “the key element of a phenomenological research study is that the researcher attempts to understand how people experience a phenomenon from the person’s own perspectives” (p.46). Therefore clear connections can also be made with interpretivism and constructivism, since phenomenology refers to prior constructs of knowledge and experiences which influences individuals’ perceptions and actions. Intrepretivism and constructivism are related approaches of philosophy that concerns acquisition of human knowledge and basis of human behavior.
Types of Phenomenology
1) Transcendental constitutive phenomenology studies how objects are constituted in pure or transcendental consciousness, setting aside questions of any relation to the natural world around us.
(2) Naturalistic constitutive phenomenology studies how consciousness constitutes or takes things in the world of nature, assuming with the natural attitude that consciousness is part of nature.
(3) Existential phenomenology studies concrete human existence, including our experience of free choice or action in concrete situations.
(4) Generative historicist phenomenology studies how meaning, as found in our experience, is generated in historical processes of collective experience over time.
(5) Genetic phenomenology studies the genesis of meanings of things within one's own stream of experience.
(6) Hermeneutical phenomenology studies interpretive structures of experience, how we understand and engage things around us in our human world, including ourselves and others.
(7) Realistic phenomenology studies the structure of consciousness and intentionality, assuming it occurs in a real world that is largely external to consciousness and not somehow brought into being by consciousness.
The qualitative research methods such as historical research, autoethnography, case study and library research employed in my PhD study are embedded in a phenomenological tradition. Hence Phenomenology was selected as the underpinning approach/research paradigm in my PhD research study.
Examples for use of Phenomenology in (Music) Education research
Presenting Phenomenological data
• Reality consists of the meaning of experiences by those being studied (both that of the participant and that of the researcher)
• Hermeneutic - researcher must then interpret what the participant communicates
Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA)
• aims to ‘explore in detail how participants are making sense of their personal and social world … the meanings particular experiences, events, states hold for participants’ (Smith & Osborn 2003: 53).
• idiographic
• participants recount events and feelings from their own perspectives
• intellectually connected to hermeneutics and theories of interpretation

• case study
• data sources: documents, interviews, artefacts, observations
• documents - interview transcripts, researcher diaries, participant journals, participant published writing, web postings, etc.
• interviews - semi-structured
• artefacts - photographs, awards, displays, etc.
• Transcribe interviews/collect documents
• Read and re-read
• In column to right identify issues/matters (emergent themes)
• Highlight apposite quotations for use in written case
• Order emergent themes according to connections and hierarchical relationships
• Diagram may be helpful
• Write case based on hierarchical and ordered themes
• Researcher journal can be analysed
• Additional column for theoretical connections
• observations - researcher journals
IPA Method
Major writers in IPA

• Smith, J.A. (Ed.) (2008). Qualitative Psychology: A Practical Guide to Research Methods. London: Sage. London.
• Eatough, V. and J. Smith. (2006). ‘I was like a wild, wild person’: Understanding feelings of anger using interpretative phenomenological analysis. British Journal of Psychology, 97, 483-498
• Smith, J.A., Jarman, M and Osborn, M. (1999) Doing Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. In M. Murray and K. Chamberlain, Qualitative Health Psychology: Theories and methods, 218-236. London: Sage.
• Larkin, M., V. Eatough and M. Osborn (2011) Interpretative phenomenological Analysis and embodied, active, situated cognition. Theory Psychology, 21(3), 318-337.
• Giorgi, A. (2009). Concerning variations in the application of phenomenological method. The Humanist Psychologist, 34(4), 305–319
Phenomenological Enquiries: Music and positive ageing, culture and community
Assoc. Prof. Jane Southcott
Monash University
Current and recent music education doctoral studies using IPA
Dr Kathleen Buchanan School drama education: reality versus rhetoric (PhD 2010)
Dr Nerelee Henry Strategy attribution and learning in school music classroom: A study of siblings (PhD 2011)
Lucy Bainger Mentoring pre-school music teachers (completed)
Dr Wei Cosaitis Efficacy in Victorian primary school music
Dr Rohan Nethsinghe Attaining proximal authenticity in culturally diverse music education
Tavis Ashton-Bell Interfaces between music theory and music composition: understandings of tertiary music students
Other current doctoral studies using IPA
Dr Monica Sicong-Li Older Chinese and Chinese-Australians and community music engagement
Maria Gindidis Teachers of English as a Second Language in Victoria
Beryl Wintrip Community understanding linguistic diversity – Chinese in Italy
Adam Hardcastle Community music in rural Victoria
Ageing in Australia
2006 Census: the Australian population of nearly 21 million included 13% aged over 65 years of age and 18% aged between the years of 50 and 64. Comparatively recent Australia-wide data reported that Australians of 65 years of more are a heterogenous group from a diversity of backgrounds with a variety of lifestyles, backgrounds, social, cultural and spiritual circumstances. Music plays a significant role in the lives of many older Australians.
Not just Australia…
Australia has an ageing population
this creates new challenges for maintaining health and combating social isolation
Music has the potential to enhance quality of life such as health, activity, happiness, independence and developing community
The national research priority, Promoting and Maintaining Good Health, specifically identifies ageing well and ageing productively
Currently approximately 13% of our population is aged 65+. This will rise to 18% by 2021.
Potential benefits of engagement in music/music education
emotional, cognitive and physical well being
emotional - social, sense of purpose and value, confidence, happiness
cognitive - learning, memory, alertness
physical - improved motor skills, breathing, active participation
cultural - particularly CALD
Qualitative
Series of phenomenological case studies of groups of older Australians
‘Happy Wanderers’, Dandenong Ranges Music Council
With Dr Dawn Joseph
Series of studies: older Australian’s from different cultural backgrounds and arts participation
Coro Furlan, older men’s choir
Bosnian Behar choir
Decoupage group
With Monica Li - older Chinese women
With Rohan Nethsinghe - senior Sri Lankan artists
Recent publications
Southcott, J.E. (2009). ‘And as I go, I love to sing’: The Happy Wanderers, music and positive ageing. International Journal of Community Music, 2(2&3), 143-156.
Southcott, J. & Joseph, D. (2009). Sharing community through singing: The Bosnian Behar Choir in Victoria, Australia. e-journal of studies in music education, 8(2), 17-27, http://www.merc.canterbury.ac.nz/sound_ideas.shtml.
Southcott, J. & Joseph, D. (2013). Community, commitment, and the Ten Commandments: Singing in the Coro Furlan. International Journal of Community Music, 6(1), 79-92.
Li, Sicong & Southcott, J. (2012). A Place for Singing: Active Music Engagement by Older Chinese Australians. International Journal of Community Music, 5(2), 59-78.
Southcott, J. (2013?). Starting from scratch: Forming a community of practice in an Australian late starters’ wind band. Submitted to Journal of Arts and Communities (jsouth/mypoggy4 id no. submission No. 806).
Joseph, D. & Southcott, J. (2013?). Crafts and successful aging: The Découpage Guild Australia. Submitted to Craft Research
Kiran, H. & Southcott, J. (2013). ‘By the time I understood how to study, my course was over’: International Indian Students in Australian Universities. International Journal of the Humanities,10 (1).

Current studies (1)
Late starters band http://users.chariot.net.au/~cwesties/
South Australia, founded 1998
Stake holders interviewed
Rich qualitative data
Different perspectives of understanding of engagement with the group
Can be understood as a community of practice
Community of practice
Etienne Wenger
groups of people who share a concern or a passion for something they do and learn how to do it better as they interact regularly
Three crucial characteristics
The domain (shared domain of interest, value collective competence and learn from each other)
The community (joint activities, build relationships, help each other)
The practice (members are practitioners, shared repertoire of resource, shared practice)
Late starters band
First study: the founding of the group
Voices of founder, music director, founding members
Founder: saw idea, advertised, public meeting
Music director: remained with ensemble
Founding members: Jennifer, Nancy, Ivan, James, Ivy
Findings
Within a year established as a community of practice who:
Take collective responsibility for managing the knowledge they need, recognise that they are in the best position to do this
Create a direct link between learning and performance
Address the dynamic aspects of knowledge creation and sharing
Current studies (2)
Older Chinese women community singing group
A Place for Singing: Active Music Engagement by Older Chinese Australians
Culturally and Linguistically Diverse (CALD) older people often not fluent in English (2006 35% Aus. Population born overseas and of these 61% non-English speaking countries)
Mandarin Chinese speaking so interviews undertaken in this language
Findings
Five broad themes further categorised
Emotional Well-being (Enjoyment, Building confidence, Sense of purpose, Catharsis, & Overcoming loneliness and isolation),
Connections with the Past (Chinese songs, Russian songs, Western music, & Celebrating culture)
Shared Interests
Mental Well-being (Maintaining memory and Learning new things)
Physical Well-being.
Current studies (3)
4 senior Sri Lankan arts practitioners who have migrated to Australia: Shyaman Jayasinghe (singer/actor), Upa Upadasa (sound/lighting engineer), Sirima Ediriweera (dancer/teacher), Padma Kumar Ediriweera (actor/costumes/makeup)
experience in preserving, transmitting their cultural legacy in their new country
extensive skills/expertise/experience in SL theatre
productions in Australia
all fluent English, Sinhala and other languages
co-researcher Sri Lankan/Australian
Findings
Performing in Sri Lanka with revolutionary dramatists and directors Sarachchandra and Henry Jayasena
Sharing their Sri Lankan culture in Australia
Bringing Sri Lankan artists to Melbourne
Bridging generations
As Upa stated “there are a lot of cultural elements that you bring when you migrate to another country … we try to preserve somewhat while we are trying to integrate into a community”.
Final points
idiographic findings
importance of care in wider applications
the individual can illuminate the general
efficacy relies on diligent, deep analysis
wide applicability to significant issues in education
Thank You

Trustworthiness in Qualitative research
Criteria described from one perspective may not be suitable to evaluate actions taken from another perspective. A qualitative study can be considered as transferable when it is credible and the credibility relies on the dependability. Such validity depends on the trustworthiness of a study.

Based on the work of Lincoln and Guba (1985), the criteria of ‘research soundness’ developed by Marshall and Rossman (1995) ... The four criteria are, credibility, dependability, confirmability and transferability (Marshall & Rossman , 1995).

Criteria described from one perspective may not be suitable to evaluate actions taken from another perspective. A qualitative study can be considered as transferable when it is credible and the credibility relies on the dependability. Such validity depends on the trustworthiness of a study.

Based on the work of Lincoln and Guba (1985), the criteria of ‘research soundness’ developed by Marshall and Rossman (1995) ... The four criteria are, credibility, dependability, confirmability and transferability (Marshall & Rossman , 1995).
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