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# Convenction Currents

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by

## Daniel Vergara

on 2 February 2016

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#### Transcript of Convenction Currents

Convenction Currents
So what are they?
You could search for crazy long definitions in the internet to answer this question, but it all comes back to the same basic concepts. First lighter matter (a fancy word for stuff) rises if it's under denser matter. Furthermore if it rises it will push what's above them creating a circular movement. Today we'll be explaining how this happens in the mantle (one of earth's three main layers located above the core) by creating a life size model.

Our Little Experiment
So what can we test that will show the changes in the enormous, and incredibly pressured mantle. Its really actually simpler that what it sounds like. Theres two experiments to do this, and we did both. First we tried a hot air balloon which proves our concepts since it flies because the air inside the balloon is hotter that the one outside. We tried it three times changing various factors like the temperature outside the balloon and the mass of it. Since that didn't work, we did an experiment that simulated the heat found on the mantle by heating up a plastic container, the frigidness found above by filling one cup with ice and setting it in one corner, rock with water and finally to see if the water moved we placed a small boat that will circle around the container as the water moves.

Below we have a video of our boat circling around the water.
How Does it Happen in the Mantle and Why Does it Matter
The same process happens in the mantle, with a slight difference, it takes millions of years! It takes so much time that if you put a rock when Jesus was born and measure where it is , and then measured how much it moved since then you wouldn't even realize the change. Now , why does this matter? Maybe you think moving a centimeter is not much , but that change in the mantle could create a hill. It's extremely necessary to learn about them since we could use them to predict enormous topography changes that could save millions of lives.

Conclusion
To resume this presentation let's remember some of our most important points. First of all remember our basic concepts from the beginning. For example lighter matter rises if it's under denser matter, pushing what's above them. Also we should always remember that even though convection currents happen gradually in the mantle they can create major changes on the crust. Finally remember that all of this are hypothesis based on what happens on the crust, which is the only layer we can study, so information may vary from different sources since they each have their guesses.

Citations
1:
"Exploring How the Earth's Outermost Portion Moves." 2011. 31 Jan. 2016 <https://msnucleus.org/membership/html/k-6/pt/plate/2/ptpt2_1a.html>

2:
"of /collection/cub_/lessons/cub_images - Teach Engineering." 2014. 31 Jan. 2016 <https://www.teachengineering.org/collection/cub_/lessons/cub_images/>

3:
"Thesaurus.com | Find Synonyms and Antonyms of Words at ..." 31 Jan. 2016 <http://www.thesaurus.com/>

Mini Test
Test what you've learned with this three questions
Why is learning about convenction currents important?

How fast do convenction currents happen in the mantle?

Why did our experiment relate to convenction currents in the Mantle?
Questions?
Full transcript