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Area of Study 1: Mind, Brain and Body

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Helen Diab

on 26 June 2013

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Transcript of Area of Study 1: Mind, Brain and Body

Characteristics and Patterns of Sleep
NREM
REM
Effects of Total and Partial Sleep Deprivation
Area of Study 1: Mind, Brain and Body
Dot Point 1: Concepts of normal waking consciousness and altered states of consciousness
Accepted Definition of Consciousness
Refers to the level of awareness of our internal state and of our external environment.
DOT POINT # 2
SLEEP AS AN ALTERED STATE OF CONSCIOUSNESS
How do we STUDY sleep?
Sleep across the lifespan
CENTRAL and PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEMS
WHAT SHOULD YOU KNOW?
The
ROLES
of the following
-
Neuron
in receiving and transmitting information to and from the Nervous Systems
-
Central Nervous System
(integrate & coordinate incoming neural information)
-
Peripheral Nervous System
(
somatic and autonomic
)

to carry sensory and motor messages
-Autonomic Nervous System (
Sympathetic (FIGHT and FLIGHT) and Parasympathetic
) Functions without any conscious control, self regulates and functions continuously awake/asleep
Sensations
Perceptions
Memories and
Feelings that we are
AWARE
of at any given moment
NORMAL WAKING CONSCIOUSNESS
MEMORY
ATTENTION
CONTENT
TIME
Determined By...
Concentration of mental activity that involves focusing on specific stimuli and ignoring other stimuli
Is ACTIVE- encoding and storing of memories as well as retrieving them.
Organised and logical with an ability to exercise control over what is acceptable modes of thought in our environment
An awareness of time passing. We have the ability to accurately perceive and estimate time.
ALTERED STATES OF CONSCIOUSNESS
ASC
- occurs when there is a change in
brain wave patterns
NWC
DAYDREAMING
ALCOHOL INDUCED ASC
A naturally occurring ASC
Shifting attention from the external to internal
Research suggests that we are more likely to daydream when we are stationary than when we are moving about, also more likely to occur when we are alone.
Considered a
psychoactive drug.
Many everyday drugs such as
Caffeine and Nicotine
and psychoactive drugs
These are chemicals that
change conscious awareness, perceptions and moods
Alcohol is classified as a
depressant, slows down/ impairs the nervous system
The effects f alcohol on consciousness depends on a wide variety of VARIABLES
The concentration of alcohol consumed
The amount of alcohol consumed
Conditions under which the alcohol is consumed
The Effects of alcohol on consciousness depends on a wide variety of variables:
These are variables that are related to the INDIVIDUAL- eg rate of consumption, drinking history, amount of food in stomach, body weight, gender, physical wellbeing, emotional state and mood
THEORIES OF SLEEP
Two accepted theories of sleep
RESTORATIVE THEORY
SURVIVAL THEORY
proposes that sleep is provides 'time out' to help us recover from the depletion of the body's physical and mental resources due to activities.
The most widely accepted and believed theory of sleep!
Eg- once an organism has fulfilled all its survival functions such as eating, drinking, caring for its young and reproducing, it must spend the rest of its time conserving energy, hidden and protected from predators.
Thus according to the survival theory....
Sleep serves the function of protecting the sleeper from harm or death, and therefor enhances the survival of the species
Purpose of sleep- Theories (Restorative vs Survival)
ensure that you have an understanding and can refer to EVIDENCE for and against the theories
Characteristics and patterns of sleep
- brain wave patterns and the biological signs associated with each stage-
brain wave patterns
REM and NREM stages of sleep- Characteristics of these stages are important but so is an understanding of what can happen if we are
deprived of this kind of sleep!
Support for this theory
Human Feedback about Sleep
Research evidence on sleep
Rats
Sleep lab studies
Biological Results of restoration eg hormonal responses to sleep
What are the criticisms of this theory?
Methods Used to Study the levels of alertness in NWC and Stages of sleep
Interpretation of EEG...
Remember.....
To interpret the electronecephalograph refer to the following
AMPLITUDE- the height or size of the peaks and troughs in the electrical impulses
FREQUENCY- the number of brain waves per second
To help you remember the brain waves B.A.T.D
(Beta, Alpha, Theta, Delta) - From Awake to Deep sleep
Methods used to Study Alertness and Sleep
Includes FOUR stages (found on pg 8)
Be sure to be able to describe the typical brain wave patterns for each stage
People generally spend 30 min or so in deep sleep (stages 3 & 4) during each sleep cycle. We usually don't go into stages 3&4 in the last 2-3 hours of sleep so that's why the first 4-5 hours are the most valuable for restoration.
Stages and patterns of sleep are recorded on a graph known as a
HYPNOGRAM
Major Trends of a normal night's sleep...
Increase in duration of REM sleep with each cycle as the night progresses
Replacement of Stage 1 NREM sleep with REM sleep after the first cycle
The tendency to spend more time in the shallow stages of sleep and no time in very deep NREM sleep as the night progresses
Sometimes called "paradoxical sleep because the brain is showing a high level of activity while the body is inactive and extremely relaxed (to the point of paralysis)
DREAMING!
REM REBOUND
Where a person who has been deprived of REM sleep experienced higher than normal instances of REM sleep (to catch up)
REM BEHAVIOUR DISORDER
A failure of normal muscles paralysis during REM sleep- sometimes leading to violent actions while dreaming
Loss of REM and NREM Sleep
Sleep recovery pattens including amount of sleep required (REM REBOUND and MICROSLEEPS)
Remember you do NOT need to make up the entire amount of sleep missed! Normally one or two good night's sleep is sufficient for a full recovery.
Sleep- Wake cycle shifts during adolscence compared with child and adult sleep - including Delayed onset and the need for sleep
Sleep - Wake Cycles and Age
REM SLEEP and AGE
As we age...
Adolescent Sleep-Wake cycles
We specifically compare adolescence with child & adult sleep patterns
You require less sleep per 24 hour period
There is a strong negative correlation between hours slept per night and age
The % of total sleep time spent in REM lessens as we age
eg newborn 50% of total sleep time in REM compared to Adult who only spends 33% and
what is the % of time spent in REM for Adolescents?
(Be sure to know these comparisons!)
The hormones MELATONIN and CORTISOL are important to the sleep- wake cycle
Melatonin-
promotes sleepiness
Cortisol-
brings about alertness

In adolescents the release of these hormones is delayed by up to 2 HOURS!

This physiological phenomena coupled with lifestyle (social) factors, results in
most teenagers being permanently sleep deprived.
THE BRAIN
You should know the roles of the four lobes of the cerebral cortex
HEMISPHERIC SPECIALISATION
RESEARCH ON HEMISPHERIC SPECIALISATION
Understand that not only does the two halves have their specialised functions and that the right side controls the left and vice versa- but that the top of the brain controls the bottom half of the body and vice versa

Be sure to be able to list at least TWO
Behavioural
and TWO
Cognitive
Functions for each hemisphere.
Research is conducted on:
People with intact brains Ethically through the use of technology such as
WADA TEST
EEG
PET
MRI
SPLIT BRAIN STUDIES
Sperry and Gazzaniga
This is how we know about Broca's and Wernicke's Aphasia as well as people who suffer from Spacial Neglect Syndrome
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