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Reported Speech

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by

Oriana Said

on 26 June 2014

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Transcript of Reported Speech

Reported Questions
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What is it?
Direct Speech:
Saying exactly what someone has said. These words are between quotation marks for example The actor said, "I want to finish at eight."
Reported Speech
There are two common ways to report people's words, thoughts and so on.





Direct speech & Reported speech.

Direct speech
is when we
use the exact words
that were said.

For Example - Malcolm : I like coffee.

In Direct Speech this would be written as follows:

Malcolm said, 'I like coffee.'
Time Expressions
TENSES SWITCH
Present Simple - Past Simple

Present Continuous - Past Continuous

Present Perfect - Past Perfect

Past Simple - Past Perfect

Past Continuous - Past Perfect Continuous

Future (will) - Second Conditional (Would)
The one-tense back rule
The MOST important thing to remember when dealing with reported or indirect speech is the one-tense back rule.

This means that a tense in direct speech must go a tense back when using indirect speech.
Reported / Indirect Speech
Reported Requests/Orders/Commands/Suggestions
Indirect speech:
or reported speech doesn't use quotation marks and it doesn't have to be word for word.
Very often the word
'that'
is used when turning direct speech to indirect speech. It is not always necessary.
Let's look at the same example again...

Malcolm : I like coffee.

We can write this in
reported speech
as follows :

Malcolm said (that) he liked coffee.


I
mportant to note:

(1) There is no comma after said.

(2) The
verb
like, which Malcolm used in the present simple tense,
has been changed to past simple tense.
This is called the
one-tense-back rule.

(3) The word that is optional.

Important to note:

(1) We need to put a comma after the verb say.

(2) The words that Malcolm used are put in inverted commas, ' ' or " ".

(Double or single be used. Single quotes are more common in British English; double quotes are preferred in American English.)
Reported Speech...
Tense Direct Speech Reported Speech

Present simple - Past Simple I like ice cream. She said (that) she liked ice cream.
Present continuous - Past Continuous I am living in London. She said she was living in London.
Past simple - Past Perfect Simple I bought a car. She said she had bought a car.
Past continuous - Past Perfect Continuous I was walking along the street. She said she had been walking along the street.
Present perfect - Past Perfect I haven't seen Julie. She said she hadn't seen Julie.
Past perfect - Past Perfect I had taken English lessons before. She said she had taken English lessons before.


Will - Would I'll see you later. She said she would see me later.
Would - Would I would help, but... She said she would help but...
Can - Could I can speak perfect English. She said she could speak perfect English.
Could - Could I could swim when I was four. She said she could swim when she was four.
shall - Would I shall come later. She said she would come later.
Should - Should I should call my mother. She said she should call her mother.
Might - Might I might be late. She said she might be late.
Must - Must I must study at the weekend. She said she must study at the weekend.
In reported speech, personal and possessive pronouns
change according to
the
meaning
.

Direct Speech
- John said, '
I'm
having
my
car repaired.'

Indirect Speech
- Reported Speech - He said that
he
was having
his
car repaired.
Certain
time expressions
and words change. It's important to remember to
change
them when changing from direct speech to indirect or reported speech.
now - then/immediately
today - that day
yesterday - the day before / the previous day
tomorrow - the next day / the following day
this week - that week
last week - the week before / the previous week
next week - the week after / the following week
ago - before
here - there
come - go
bring - take
Turn the following sentences to reported speech.
1. I want to eat now. I have my birthday today.

2. Henry wanted to eat a burger yesterday.

3. Tomorrow I will visit my grandfather.

4. I have eaten four ice-creams this week. Last week I ate three. Next week I'm going to eat two!

5. I turned fourteen two weeks ago.

6. 'Come here and bring those pencils!'
The
tense changes
are the
same,
and we keep the
question word.
The very important thing though is that, once we
repeat
the question to someone else,
it isn't a question any more.
Change the grammar to a normal positive sentence.
Direct speech: "Where do you live?"
Reported speech: She asked me where I lived.
The direct question is in the present simple tense. Change the verb to the past simple.
Direct Question Reported Question

Where

is
the Post Office, please? She asked me
where
the Post Office
was
.
What

are
you doing? She asked me
what
I
was
doing.
Who

was
that fantastic player? She asked me
who
that fantastic player
had been
.
For yes/no questions...
... use 'if'.
Would you like some tea?
He asked me
IF
I wanted any tea.
When a
question
starts with an an
auxiliary verb
(be, do or have) OR a
modal verb
, the r
eported question
will start with
IF
.
to + infinitive' /
Please don't smoke. -> She ordered me
not to smoke
.

Could you bring my book tonight? -> She asked me t
o bring
her book that night.
not +to + infinitive'
Full transcript