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Critical Pedagogy and Qualitative Research
Transcript of Critical Pedagogy and Qualitative Research
Moving to the Bricolage
Big Blue Chapter 9
DEFINE CRITICAL THEORY: Ummm... IT'S NOT REALLY possible.
TOO MANY THEORIES FALL UNDER THE 'CRITICAL' UMBRELLA.
THE CRITICAL TRADITION IS ALWAYS CHANGING.
LET'S NOT BE TOO SPECIFIC, IN OTHER WORDS:
DON'T PUT CRITICAL THEORY IN A BOX
CRITICAL THEORY DRAWS ON INSPIRATION FROM MANY TRADITIONS..... HERE ARE SOME THAT YOU MAY RECOGNIZE
all thought is fundamentally mediated by socially and historically constituted power relations
(without consensus) some common assumptions among Critical theorists
Facts can never be mediated from values or removed from ideological inscription
The relationship between
is mediated by the social relations of capitalist production and consumption
Language is central to the formation of subjectivity
certain groups have privilege in society
oppression is reproduced most forcefully when subordinates accept their social status as natural necessary or inevitable
Focusing on one face of oppression at the expense of another
(e.g. Class / Race)
the interconnections among them
Mainstream research practices are implicit in the reproduction of existing systems of race class and gender oppression
Critical Pedagogy Informing Social Research.... What's Freire got to do with it?
Critical research can be best understood in the context of empowerment of individuals.
As a foundational influence of critical research. Freire established an approach to research that involves everyone in the research process joined in investigation, examination, criticism, and reinvestigation.
We need to ask questions of all knowledge because all data are shaped by context and by the individuals that produced them. Furthermore, knowledge does not transcend culture or history.
Critical pedagogical research must have a mandate to represent a form of reading that conceptualizes the dominant hidden ideologies (Denzin p. 343).
(BTW, my theories were born in a world of production, therefore I owe a great deal to the Marxist foundations that underpin my perspectives and my work.)
The critical researcher wishes to shatter the hegemony of race, the racial state, and so on.
Your contemporaries believe that an insightful class/race analysis and an understanding of economic exploitation of capitalist societies can inform a movement to forcefully contest racism and mobilize transformative practices. (Denzin, pp. 343-346)
We are fully situated as a consumer economy now. Are your Marxist underpinnings enough in today's globalized world to support transformation?
Also in this chapter, Dr. Porfilio is cited:
Promoting teachers as researchers is a fundamental way of cleaning up the damage of deskilled models of teaching that infantalize teachers... "Teacher research is a central dimension of a critical pedagogy." (Porfilio & Carr, 2010)
Horkheimer argues that critical theory and research are never satisfied with merely increasing knowledge. Critical pedagogical researchers regard their work as a first step toward forms of political action that can redress the injustices found in the field or in research itself.
If we view the violence we find in classrooms not as random and isolated incidents created by aberrent individuals willfully stepping out of line in accordance with a particular form of social pathology, but as possible narratives of transgression and resistance, then this could indicate that the 'political unconsciousness' lurking beneath the surface of everyday classroom life is not unrelated to practices of race, class, and gender oppression but rather intimately connected to them. By applying a critical pedagogical lens within research, we create an empowering qualitative research, which expands, contracts, grows, and questions itself within the theory and practice examined (Denzin & Lincoln, 2013 p. 349).
The Bricolage as an emancipatory research construct
Discourse and philosophical analysis
Theatrical and dramatic ways of observing and making meaning
The critical researcher-as-bricoleur abandons the quest for naive realism, focusing instead on the clarification of her position in the web of reality and the social locations of other researchers and the way they shape the production and interpretation of knowledge.
Gaining Insight from the Margins
Without following a prescriptive methodology, critical research incorporates many tools. The lines become blurred between the hermeneutical search for understanding and the critical concern for social change and social justice.
In the critical hermeneutical dimension of the bricolage, the act of understanding power and its effects is only one (inseparable) part of counterhegemonic action. So the production of meaning and the other orientation of bricolage, resisting and transforming existing conditions of exploitation, are synergistic.
If we get all caught up in the hermeneutic circle, we won't transform the exploitation that exists!
Difference in the bricolage
pushes us into the hermeneutic circle as we are induced to deal with parts in their diversity in relation to the whole.
Within the bricolage; there exists a complex realm of knowledge production in which a clarification of ontological grounding is necessary.
The object of study is ontologically complex in that it is an open view; much like a river with various perspectives of the same, dependent upon where you stand. There are varied contexts of the inquiry which are culturally inscribed and historically situated.This complexity is nuanced beyond typical triangulation of data and therefore has the ability to go beyond reductionist POV to approach incorporating implications of the whole social fabric.
Bricoleurs use multiple methods to analyze the multi-dimensionality of the object's connection to the social fabric.
The bricolage deals with double ontology complexity:
1. complexity of objects and their being int he world
2. the social construction of human subjectivity
Bricoleurs understand that social structures do not determine individual subjectivity but constrain it in intricate ways (Denzin, 2013 p. 356). The bricoleur specifies the ways in which subjectivity is shaped.
Employing a Method within Bricolage
You're welcome, black people
Ethnography as an example:
Doing ethnographic research in a critical way is difficult because -again- it's all political.
One issue, in ethnography, is that sociopolitical affiliations are tied to many anthropological texts.
Also, researchers conducting ethnography must continually challenge presuppositions that inform normalizing judgements one makes as a researcher.
What would Carspecken say?
"Every time we act, we presuppose some normative or universal relation to truth. Truth is related to meaning in a pragmatic way through claims and the way we ground meaning."
Researchers are able to articulate the normative evaluative claims of others
they begin to see them in the same way as their participants by living INSIDE the positionalities that inform such claims.
So, a critical researcher employing the bricolage would employ the additional use of other methods as well as multiple ways of approaching and using research...
Bricolage goes beyond basic triangulation of data.
It uses multiple reads that create new dialogue, discourse, and open possibilities.
Finally, Just two questions...
What is the danger of NOT knowing the ontological complexity involved in the critical research process?
(See pages 354-355)
The more unaware observers are of this type of inquiry, the more reductionistic the knowledge they produce about it.
What is the percentage of cocoa contained in the
Will to Power Bar?