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The Rise of Christianity, and the Fall of the Roman Empire (6.3, 6.4, 6.5)
Transcript of The Rise of Christianity, and the Fall of the Roman Empire (6.3, 6.4, 6.5)
1. We will be able to trace the spread of Christianity in the Roman Empire.
2. We will be able to summarize the decline of the Roman Empire and its split into an East and West.
3. We will be able to explain the reforms of Diocletian and Constantine.
4. We will be able to analyze the lasting impact of Greek and Roman civilizations.
The Roman World
Agriculture and Trade
Agriculture was the most important industry: WHY?
90% of people engaged in farming
Common coinage made trade between parts of empire easier
Traveled across the Mediterranean Sea, even India and China, protected by Roman Navy
Road for military also helped trade
Slaves and Captivity
Widespread and Important to the economy 91/3 of population)
Worked hard labor, in houses, or some as Gladiators (professional fighters)
Rome & the Rise of Christianity
Early on in Pax Romana, a new religion, Christianity, emerged in a distant corner of the Empire
Many different religions in the empire
By 63 B.C., Romans had conquered Judea where most Jewish people lived.
Born in 4 B.C. in Bethlehem
worshiped God and followed Jewish law
at 30 began preaching to villagers, used parables-short stories with simple moral lessons to communicate his ideas
Recruited 12 disciples to help him spread his ideas, called apostles, in Jerusalem
Some Jews in Jerusalem welcomed Jesus, many of the priests felt he threatened their leadership
Roman authorities felt Jesus would lead the Jews in a revolt against their rule
A Vast and Powerful Empire
Roman Empire more than 3 million square miles
Population had 60-80 million
1 million in Rome itself
Why do nations and empires fall? What causes the strongest nations in the world to lose their place?
A Sound Government
The Pax Romana
A stabilized frontier, glorified Rome
Managed grain supply, tax collection, postal system
Plebeians and former slaves helped run the empire
Society and Culture
Social classes had little in common
Most people barely had the necessities of life
Much of the city’s population was unemployedsupported through rations
To distract masses celebrations were held in the places like the Colosseum (animal shows, gladiators)
Also the emergence of Christianity
Romans allowed Jewish people to worship their one god
Many Jews reluctantly lived under Roman rule, however, some wanted a revolt against Rome and believed a messiah would come to lead their people to freedom
Death of Jesus
According to the gospels, Jesus was betrayed by one of his disciples, arrested by the Romans, and killed by crucifixion-a person was bound to a cross and left to die
Rumors then spread that Jesus had not died but had risen from death and commanded his disciples to spread his teachings
Followers called Christians
Romans were not tolerant towards Christians because:
they refused to honor the emperor with sacrifices,
they refused to worship Roman gods to protect the state
Christians were used as scapegoats, blamed for social and economic problems
However, Christianity continued to spread due to the fact that all people were welcome
Early Christian Church
Emperor Constantine issued the Edict of Milan in A.D. 313.
The Edict granted freedom of worship to all citizens of the Roman empire
By the end of the century, Emperor Theodosius made Christianity the official religion of the Roman empire
The Fall of the Roman Empire
Rome Economy Weakens Emperors Reform
During 3rd Century AD
Hostile tribes and pirates disrupted trade
Romans lacked new sources of gold
Government raised taxes
Military and Political Turmoil
Military less disciplined
Rome recruited mercenaries for cheaper rates but less loyalty
Worsening conditions caused citizens to lose patriotism
Ruled with an iron fist and limited personal freedoms but increased Roman strength
Controlled inflation and doubled the size of the army
Divided the Empire in half
Appointed rule for each half
East had better connection for trade and cities
Constantine takes control (311 AD)
Ends persecution of the Christians
Took control of the East and West
Moved the capital from Rome to Byzantium in what is now Turkey (330 AD)
Capital was critical for trade and defense
Byzantium becomes Constantinople
o Germanic Invasions
Around AD 370 Germanic peopled started to flee from the Huns and went into Europe
o By 410 AD overran Spain, Gaul, Northern African and even sacked Rome and plundered it for three days
Attila the Hun
o United all Huns for the first time and became a direct threat in AD 444
Terrorized by halves of the empire but could not take Constantinople
An Empire No More
o Last Roman emperor for the time being was a 14-year-old boy name Romulus Augustulus in 476.
o Roman power in the West disappeared
Byzantine Empire in the East flourished and lased for another 1000 years.
All though the West fell, its influence lasted as we will discuss tomorrow!
The Western Empire Crumbles
Legacy of Greco-Roman Civilization
"Greece, once overcome, overcame her wild conqueror"-Horace
Roman Fine Arts
Created more realistic portraits in stone
intended for public education
Greeks were for idealization and beauty
Very strong in mosaics (small pieces of stone, glass, or tile for bigger picture)
Painting also excelled, particularly frescos
Arts were saved in Pompeii because of eruption of Mount Vesuvius (79 AD) as ash preserved buildings and art.
Learning and Literature
Borrowed philosophy from Greek's
Stoicism-virtue, duty, moderation, and endurance.
Roman poet Virgil produced works similar to the epics of Homer, the great Greek writer.
Tacitus a Roman historian presented the history of Rome accurately
The Legacy of Rome
The Latin Language
Remained the language of learning the West long after the fall of Rome
Developed into French, Spanish, Portuguese, Italian, and Romanian.
The arch, the dome, and concrete built spectacular structures
Aqueducts brought water to cities and towns and made use of the arches
Roman roads connected the empire and are still around.
US President Thomas Jefferson helped restart a Roman architecture revival in the 18th century.
Roman System of Law
Most lasting and widespread contribution
Laws should be equal for all and standard
All persons had the right to equal treatment under the law
A person was innocent until proven guilty
The burden of proof rested with the accuser rather than the accused.
Any law that seemed unreasonable or grossly unfair could be set aside
Rome preserved and added Greek civilization and strengthened Western culture
Did Rome ever really fall?
Getting to Know Rome
Roman Government’s Three Phases
753 to 509 BC
509 to 27 BC
27 BC to 476 AD
*NOTE* Don’t forget the Roman Empire was in existence for so long that the calendar transitions from (B.C./ B.C.E) to (A.D./ C.E.)
B.C = Before Christ A.D.= Anno Domini
B.C.E= Before Common Era C.E.= Common Era
What will be your legacy? What will be the lasting legacy of America?