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The 20th Amendment

History 8 (4th period) Project
by

Mallory Volz

on 17 October 2013

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Transcript of The 20th Amendment

The 20th Amendment
By: Braxton Baker, Aubree Matyas, and Mallory Volz
The terms of the President and Vice President shall end at noon on the 20th day of January, and the terms of Senators and Representatives at noon on the 3d day of January, of the years in which such terms would have ended if this article had not been ratified; and the terms of their successors shall then begin.
The 20th Amendment
(section 2)
The Congress shall assemble at least once in every year, and such meeting shall begin at noon on the 3d day of January, unless they shall by law appoint a different day.


The 20th Amendment
(section 3)
If, at the time fixed for the beginning of the term of the President, the President elect shall have died, the Vice President elect shall become President. If a President shall not have been chosen before the time fixed for the beginning of his term, or if the President elect shall have failed to qualify, then the Vice President elect shall act as President until a President shall have qualified; and the Congress may by law provide for the case wherein neither a President elect nor a Vice President elect shall have qualified, declaring who shall then act as President, or the manner in which one who is to act shall be selected, and such person shall act accordingly until a President or Vice President shall have qualified.
The 20th Amendment
(section 4)
The Congress may by law provide for the case of the death of any of the persons from whom the House of Representatives may choose a President whenever the right of choice shall have devolved upon them, and for the case of the death of any of the persons from whom the Senate may choose a Vice President whenever the right of choice shall have devolved upon them.
The 20th Amendment
(section 5)
Sections 1 and 2 shall take effect on the 15th day of October following the ratification of this article.
The 20th Amendment
(section 6)
This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by the legislatures of three-fourths of the several states within seven years from the date of its submission.
The 20th Amendment
(section 1)
The President and Vice President take office on January ______?
A. 1st
B. 20th
Flashback
Ratified January 23, 1933
How many times per year must Congress meet?
A. Once
B. Twice
Flashback
If the president elect dies before he takes office who is next in line to take their spot?
A. Vice President elect
B. The President elect's oldest child
Flashback
Should the need arise for Congress to select a President, which body is responsible?
A. Senate
B. House of Representatives
Flashback
Flashback
Should the need arise for Congress to select a Vice President, which body is responsible?
A. Senate
B. House of Representatives
President Reagan took the oath of office on January 20, 1985
The House of Representatives takes office on January 3, 2013
How does the Amendment affect this event or case?
Section one of the Twentieth Amendment dictates when elected government officials begin their terms.
What was the outcome of the event or case?
A peaceful transition of power.
Was the Amendment used for its intended purpose?
Yes, the Amendment was used for it's intended purpose. The Amendment has been enforced. However, if January 20th is on a Sunday, then the presidential inauguration will take place on Monday the 21st.
Was the Amendment violated, abused, or enforced?
Other interesting information about Section 1 of the 20th Amendment
-Prior to the Twentieth Amendment, the terms of the President, the Vice President and the incoming Congress began on March 4, four months after the elections were held
-The first Congressional terms to begin under Section 1 were those of the 74th Congress, on January 3, 1935. The first Presidential and Vice Presidential terms to begin under Section 1 were the second terms of President Roosevelt and Vice President Garner, on January 20, 1937.


What if?
On February 15, 1933, 23 days after this amendment was ratified, President-elect Franklin D. Roosevelt was the target of an unsuccessful assassination attempt by Giuseppe Zangara. If the attempt had been successful then, pursuant to Section 3 of the amendment, Vice President-elect John N. Garner would have become President on March 4, 1933.

What is the purpose of the Amendment?
The purpose of the 20th Amendment was to establish a specific beginning and ending of the the offices of the President, Vice President, and Congress. This amendment also contains provisions that dictate what is to be done if there is no president-elect.
Why is the Amendment important? What are it's benefits?
The 20th Amendment is important because it shortened the "lame duck" sessions of Congress. This advanced the dates for the President's inauguration from March 4th to January 20, and the date for Congress to convene from March 4th to January 3rd. This avoided the time in office with diminished power.
What were the circumstances surrounding the adding of the amendment to the Constitution?
One of the Senate Committee's reasons for the proposal of the 20th amendment was:
''When our Constitution was adopted there was some reason for such a long intervention of time between the election and the actual commencement of work by the new Congress. . . . Under present conditions [of communication and transportation] the result of elections is known all over the country within a few hours after the polls close, and the Capital City is within a few days' travel of the remotest portions of the country. . . .
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