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#marco polo probs

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Olivia Suniura

on 11 November 2013

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Transcript of #marco polo probs

Little Fan Table: The Marco Polo Bridge Incident of 1937

How was the Japanese able to turn this incident into a pretext to invade China, and then to keep the other great power interests in the region out of the conflict?
How the Imperial Japanese government was able to turn the affair in its favor
Factors that made incident as a cause for war
Strategic Plan made by the Japanese Army as part of their large-scale plans to control the Asian mainland - invasion into northern China and a move on the city of Shanghai.
China decided to push the Japanese out of the city
Bring the plight of the Chinese to the world stage
General Chiang Kai-shek decided “Battle 813″ was where his forces would stand and fight
Diplomatic reactions of the other world powers
After the Marco Polo Bridge Incident many nonaggressive actions were followed by foreign powers, especially the United States.

Germany, the Soviet Union, and the United States became China’s diplomatic, financial, and military supporters during the Second Sino-Japanese War but did not ever take aggressive stances for either side during the war because they considered this conflict to have little effect and that this conflict was an Asian conflict which was neglected by the Americans and Europeans.

Japan realizing this agreed to many demands that these powers requested such as US’s request for Japan’s apology. Japan also took part in many terms that alleviated the tension such as the Soviet-Japanese Neutrality Pact and the negotiations between Japanese Foreign MInister and British Ambassador in Tokyo which led to an agreement in which Great Britain recognized Japanese conquests in China.

Background info
By: Olivia, Suyash, Cedric, D-cha
Occurred during a time when tensions between Japan and China were high
By the time the incident occurred in 1937, Japan had control over most of the territories East and North of Beijing
Japan had troops stationed outside of the town Wanping and on July 8, 1937 Japanese soldiers performed a military training maneuver without notifying the Chinese. This led to the incident!
Chinese soldiers fired random shots to scare warn them; Japanese soldier went missing
A skirmish took place between the two
Japan used the incident as an excuse to launch a full scaled invasion on China

Important dates!
On July 16, 1937,
Secretary Hull issued a state of principles of international policy where he declared that the United States advocated certain principles such as maintenance of peace, national and international self-restraint, abstinence from use of force in pursuit of policy, and many more. These principles were to addressed the increased hostilities between China and Japan
On October 5, 1937,
President Roosevelt delivered the Quarantine Address in which he asked for the peace-loving nations to oppose actions that created international anarchy and instability.
In November 1937,
the United States and 18 other nations held a conference in Brussels (called the Brussels Conference) to hasten the end of the conflict between China and Japan.
On December 12, 1937,
Japanese aircraft bombed US gunboat Panay and three US merchant vessels. However, the U.S. only requested the Japanese to “apologize” for its action and the detain itself from attacking US interests in China.

Works cited:
Extent to which they were capable of fighting
Japan had carried out intensive military training exercises in the vicinity of Marco Polo Bridge - they thought that it would be an easy victory and China would relinquish all their land
Chinese soldiers fought with incredible tenacity and bravery
Japan’s airpower was devastating in effect
The Chinese military had no answer to Japan’s tank battalions
Shanghai’s status as a port meant the Japanese Navy could sit offshore and hit targets
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"Marco Polo Bridge Incident (Asian History)." Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Encyclopedia Britannica, n.d. Web. 08 Nov. 2013. <http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/364275/Marco-Polo-Bridge-Incident>.
"The Marco Polo Bridge Incident." History Today. N.p., n.d. Web. 08 Nov. 2013. <http://www.historytoday.com/richard-cavendish/marco-polo-bridge-incident>.
Sheinin, David. "New Dollar Diplomacy in Latin America." JSTOR. JSTOR, 1999. Web. 31 Oct. 2013. <http://www.jstor.org/discover/10.2307/41279713?uid=3739920&uid=2129&uid=2134&uid=2475813793&uid=2&uid=70&uid=3&uid=2475813783&uid=3739256&uid=60&sid=21102883959953>.
"Today's History Lesson." Todays History Lesson. N.p., n.d. Web. 08 Nov. 2013. <http://todayshistorylesson.wordpress.com/tag/marco-polo-bridge/>.
"Wikia." World War II Wiki. N.p., n.d. Web. 08 Nov. 2013. <http://world-war-2.wikia.com/wiki/Battle_of_the_Marco_Polo_Bridge>.
By 1931, Japanese forces had invaded and taken control of Manchuria. Tension was built up and a war/conflict was inevitable.
With this context in mind, the Japanese used this incidence as an excuse to officially begin the war and to mount a full-scale invasion of China without making them as the aggressor.
In conclusion the Marco Polo Bridge incident was an excuse for the Japanese to invade China in attempt to gain new territories. And other greater power countries took passive actions in an attempt to alleviate tensions.
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