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Viruses

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Nicky Sun

on 25 January 2013

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Transcript of Viruses

Viruses What Is A Virus Parts of a Virus How does a Virus infect a Cell? According to Baltimore classification, there are 6 main classes of virus
dsDNA (Poxvirus), ssDNA (Parvovirus), dsRNA (Reovirus), (+)ssRNA (Flavivirus), (-)ssRNA (Orthomyxovirus), ssRNA-RT (Retrovirus)
Viruses are also classified using the LHT System of Virus Classification
The LHT says that viruses comprise the phylum Vira which is further split into Subphylums, Classes, Orders, and Families
Viruses may also be classified by shape: Helical, Icosahedral, Envelope, and Tailed Phages Classification Viruses and Diseases Is the virus alive? A virus is a microscopic particle
Viruses invade cells which causes it to make more viruses, where the virus then destroys the cell
Viruses cause organisms to die
Viruses may cause illnesses and diseases
contains genetic material(DNA or RNA) inside protein shell Interesting Facts Lytic Cycle Lysogenic Cycle enters through the mouth
multiplies in the throat and gastrointestinal tract
goes to central nervous system
destroys motor neuron cells Poliovirus Lytic cycle is a process of infection
Virus finds a cell to infect
Injects genes into cell and/or enters cell
Cell synthesizes genes and proteins to create more viroins
The host cell will "die" during the process. Lytic Cycle Lysogenic cycle is another process of infecting cells
Virus finds a cell to infect, and injects DNA into cell (like the lytic cycle)
DNA integrates with the chromosome
After a cell division, both newly formed cells contain the viral DNA
This cycle will repeat until the DNA prophage excises from the chromosome and initiates a lytic cycle Lysogenic Cycle easily spreads through saliva droplets
bullet shaped
once inside wound, quickly travels along PNS(peripheral nervous system) to CNS(central nervous system)
then it transfers to other organs
mouth gets high concentration, ergo the saliva is contaminated Rabies virus lysogenic cycle uses cell divisons to reproduce
lytic cycle uses a cell, and by destroying the cell, the original virus can become many other viruses. some viruses causes diseases
currently, 21 families known to cause diseases in humans.
DNA viruses replicate in the nucleus
RNA viruses replicate in the cytoplasm
The rate or speed of transmission of viral infections depends on population density, the number of individuals, the health and the weather. There are a million virus particles per milliliter of seawater
if they were all lined up end to end, it would stretch 200 million light years into space
the word virus was coined from the Latin word meaning slimy liquid or poison
biggest known viruses are mimiviruses which are 400 nanometers in diameter
when viruses infect, they may take a little of the host's DNA and pass it on to the next host which can help or wreck it
Bacillus subtilis has viral genes that protects it from harmful substances
Vibrio cholerae, the original cholera, was turned into a deadly disease because of foreign DNA carried by a virus When you get a virus like chickenpox, you are immune to it after you get it
some vaccinations have weakened viruses that can't harm you but prevent the viral disease
Some vaccinations have dead viruses to do the same thing Vaccinations Nicky Sun, Albert Lu, Howie Guo Sources:
(Google Images for images)
(basic information from wikipedia)
http://www.buzzle.com/articles/lytic-cycle-vs-lysogenic-cycle.html
http://www.brighthub.com/science/genetics/articles/30611.aspx
http://americanhistory.si.edu/polio/virusvaccine/how.htm
http://www.virology.ws/2009/10/19/ten-cool-facts-about-viruses/
http://archives.microbeworld.org/microbes/virus/
http://www.news-medical.net/health/Viral-Diseases.aspx
kidsresearchexpress-6.blogspot.com/2008/08/retrovirus.html
http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/0072556781/student_view0/chapter18/animation_quiz_3.html
http://www.ictvonline.org/virusTaxonomy.asp
Campbell and Reece 7th edition a family of RNA viruses that uses reverse transcriptase to reproduce
contains enzyme reverse transcriptase and 2 copies of single stranded RNA
the RNA and reverse transcriptase are released into the cell
the single strand RNA are converted to double strand DNA by the enzyme, which are then put in the cell's chromosome as a provirus
the viral DNA is then transcribed by a RNA polymerase to produce one RNA messenger that gets translated by ribosome into a long polyprotein
get cleaved by protease into proteins that make up the virion, which then exits the cell as a new virus Retrovirus Viruses contain 2 main components
Genetic material (DNA/RNA)
A protective coating
They also may contain specialized proteins and parts. There are 7 characteristics of life:
Order
Evolutionary adaption
Response to the environment
Homeostasis/Regulation
Energy Processing/Utilization
Reproduction
Growth and Development Some examples of a retrovirus are HIV, SIV, and FIV.
(human, simian, and feline immunodeficiency viruses) Viroids and Prions Viroids and Prions Viroids and Prions Viroids and Prions Viroids and Prions Viroids and Prions Viroids and Prions Viroids and Prions
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