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Conversational Theorists - E BLOCK
Transcript of Conversational Theorists - E BLOCK
1 - LABOV - NARRATIVE STRUCTURE
2 - GRICE'S MAXIMS
6 - R LAKOFF - GENDER THEORY
Brown and Levinson
3 - BROWN AND LEVINSON
A revision guide for you, by you!
4 - GOFFMAN 1955 - FACE WORK (Conversation Theorist)
5 - GILES - ACCOMMODATION THEORY
7 - TANNEN
• Developed in the 1970’s
• CONVERGENCE: Altering our speech to as to connect more with another person.
• UPWARD CONVERGENCE: Making our language/speech more formal to move closer to the other person.
• DOWNWARD CONVERGENCE: Lowering the formality of our speech to be more colloquial etc so as to move it closer to the other person.
• DIVERGENCE: Moving our speech styles further apart to distance ourselves from the other person.
• UPWARD DIVERGENCE: Making our speech style more formal and elevated to move away from the other person.
• DOWNWARD DIVERGENCE: Making our speech style more informal to distance ourselves from the other person.
The maxim of quantity, where one tries to be as informative as one possibly can, and gives as much information as is needed, and no more.
The maxim of quality, where one tries to be truthful, and does not give information that is false or that is not supported by evidence.
The maxim of relation, where one tries to be relevant, and says things that are pertinent to the discussion.
The maxim of manner, when one tries to be as clear, as brief, and as orderly as one can in what one says, and where one avoids obscurity and ambiguity.
Developed Goffman's Face Theory
Politeness theory is the theory that accounts for the redressing of the affronts to face posed by face-threatening acts to addressees
POSITIVE FACE - Our need to be liked and special
NEGATIVE FACE - Our right not to be imposed upon
Politeness involves the speaker showing awareness for another ''face needs''
Example: Your friend asks for a ride to the airport
Positive face needs: You think, I better take him because I want him to like me, and I want the reputation of being a reliable person
Negative face needs: You think, this sucks, I don't feel like driving this guy to the airport. I have other stuff that I could be doing, like sleeping, or saving the gasoline in my car. He can find his own ride.
At this point, your positive face and negative face duke it out inside your head. Then you say, 'Sure, what time do you need to go?'
Goffman wrote about face in conjunction with how people interact in daily life. He claims that everyone is concerned, to some extent, with how others perceive them. We act socially, striving to maintain the identity we create for others to see.
Positive face is the desire to be liked, appreciated, approved, etc.
Negative face is the desire not to be imposed upon, intruded, or otherwise put upon.
Positive politeness addresses positive face concerns, often by showing social concern for the other's face. Negative politeness addresses negative face concerns, often by acknowledging the other's face is threatened.
Flouting the maxim is when you make it obvious you are breaking the rules- like sarcasm
Violating is when you are trying to do it without them realising- outright lying
is when you simplify your language to match someones speech. This is a good signifier of cooperative speech and thus a more commonly seen feature of conversation.
is when you simply your speech to avoid matching an elevated lexis - this a rarer instance.
you can employ both convergence and divergence consciously and unconsciously. If you converge your language unconsciously it could be because you unconsciously want to fit in and you may just naturally pick up the language of people around you.
The Politeness Principle in 3 maxims:
Make your receiver feel good
Eggins and Slade
6 Key Stages of Narrative
Summarises events to come, indication of a beginning
Signals that the story is about to begin and draws attention away from the listener
A short summarising statement, provided before the narrative commences
Setting, character, background, contextual details
Helps the reader/listener identify time, place, persons, activity and situation of the story
Characterised by past continuous verbs (actions which were going on, and had not finished, at a particular time in the past), adjuncts of time, manner and place (modifying word, structurally dispensable but useful, e.g. yesterday, in the garden)
Can fall anywhere in the narrative
Why the speaker considers the story to be worth telling
Why the story might be relevant to the individual listener(s)
An evaluative commentary that can fall at any point in the story
The story itself
A series of temporally ordered clauses in the past or present tense
Ending of the story, resolution which was expected
The last of the narrative clauses
End of narrative
Often bridges the gap between narrative and present time
Brings the reader back to the point at which they entered the story
Often a generalised ‘timeless’ feel to the statement