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Transcript of Civil Rights:
Who: 12-15 million African people
When: Middle 15th - late 19th century
How: The Middle Passage and Triangular Trade
What: Crime against humanity
Why: Profit and a belief in ethnic superiority
What does a free man/woman need to succeed in the push for:
Life, Liberty and the Pursuit of Happiness?
Big Q: Does everyone deserve freedom of speech?
The US Civil Rights Movement
Montgomery Bus Boycott
A Timeline of Events
A Difference of Perspective
1788: Invasion / Settlement
Jim Crow Laws
Indigenous Civil Rights Movement
Winds of Change
Q: Did Lincoln manage the emancipation process effectively?
What were the Jim Crow laws? Write specific examples from the AV sources.
On July 11, 1870 Klansmen lynched Canadian Methodist minister William Luke in Cross Plains, or Patona, Calhoun County. Luke's offense, in the eyes of the Klansmen, was having instructed black freedmen in reading and writing, thereby "stirring them up" to insubordination. Before they hanged him, the Klansmen acceded to Luke's request to write a farewell letter to his family. After the murder, the farewell note gained wide currency in Northern newspapers.
My Dear Wife:
I die tonight. It has been so determined by those who think I deserve it. God only knows I feel myself entirely innocent of the charge. I have only sought to educate the negro. I little thought when leaving you that we should thus part forever so distant from each other. But God's will be done. He will be to you a husband better than I have been, and a father to our six little ones. . . .
Your loving husband,
Letter quoted in Gene L. Howard, Death at Cross Plains: A Reconstruction Alabama Tragedy (Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, 1984), p. 91.
The Greensboro Sit-in
The Birmingham Protests
& the 16th Street Bombing
March on Washington
Selma: Bloody Sunday
The Freedom Riders
'We Shall Overcome"
"Jail, No Bail"
Martin Luther King Jr
Civil Rights Act
The Little Rock Nine
Brown vs Board of Ed
1896: Plessy vs Ferguson
"Separate but Equal"
1954: Brown vs Board of Education
Segregation in schools - Unconstitutional
Emmett Till lynched
Rosa Parks arrested
Montgomery Bus Boycott
The Little Rock Nine'
1960: The Greensboro Four
and the Sit-in Strategy
1961: The Freedom Riders
1962: James Meredith attends
1963: Birmingham Protests and
MLK "Letter from Birmingham Jail"
1963: March on Washington and
"I Have a Dream" speech
1963: Birmingham -
16th Street Bombing
Civil Rights Act
Civil Rights Murders in Mississippi
Malcolm X Assassinated
Bloody Sunday (Selma, AL)
Watts Riots (LA)
1968: Martin Luther King Jr Assassinated
1992: Rodney King Case
2014: Mike Brown Shooting
1909-11: State policies introduced of Aborigine Act regarding 'protection' of children. These continued into the time of Assimilation
2008: The Apology
1992: Mabo - Land Rights
1994: Native Title Act
1972: Tent Embassy
1965 - SAFA: Freedom Rides
Racial Discrimination Act
White Australia Policy ends
1938: Day of Mourning / Australia Day
1988: Survival Day / Bicentenial Commemoration
1937-1968: Assimilation Policy
1939: Cummeragunja Walk-off
150 Aboriginals walk off the station in protest of cruel treatment by station management
1945: Port Hedland Strike - Wages
1950's: Atomic Testing in SA, affects nearby Aboriginals through contamination
1986: Goondiwindi Riots -
public acknowledgment of poor living standards and low socio-economic expectations of Aboriginal
“.. However, let me make this clear. Personally, I feel deep sorrow for those of my fellow Australians who suffered injustices under the practices of past generations towards indigenous people. Equally, I am sorry for the hurt and trauma many people here today may continue to feel as a consequence of those practices.
In facing the realities of the past, however, we must not join those who would portray Australia's history since 1788 as little more than a disgraceful record of imperialism, exploitation and racism. Such a portrayal is a gross distortion and deliberately neglects the overall story of great Australian achievement that is there in our history to be told, and such an approach will be repudiated by the overwhelming majority of Australians who are proud of what this country has achieved although inevitably acknowledging the blemishes in its past history. Australians of this generation should not be required to accept guilt and blame for past actions and policies over which they had no control…”
Opening Statement of the Reconciliation Conference - John Howard, 1997
This was said to the turned backs of Indigenous attendees in response to a refusal to say 'sorry' for the civil rights abuses perpetuated on Indigenous people by past Australian governments.
Perspective in Power?
Prime Ministerial quotes...
"And, as I say, the starting point might be to recognise that the problem starts with us non-Aboriginal Australians.
It begins, I think, with that act of recognition.
Recognition that it was we who did the dispossessing.
We took the traditional lands and smashed the traditional way of life. We brought the diseases. The alcohol.
We committed the murders.
We took the children from their mothers.
We practised discrimination and exclusion.
It was our ignorance and our prejudice.
And our failure to imagine these things being done to us.
With some noble exceptions, we failed to make the most basic human response and enter into their hearts and minds.
We failed to ask - how would I feel if this were done to me?
As a consequence, we failed to see that what we were doing degraded all of us."
The Redfern Speech, Paul Keating, 1992
"The time has now come for the nation to turn a new page in Australia's history by righting the wrongs of the past and so moving forward with confidence to the future.
for the laws and policies of successive parliaments and governments that have inflicted profound grief, suffering and loss on these our fellow Australians.
especially for the removal of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children from their families, their communities and their country.
For the pain, suffering and hurt of these stolen generations, their descendants and for their families left behind,
we say sorry
To the mothers and the fathers, the brothers and the sisters, for the breaking up of families and communities,
we say sorry
And for the indignity and degradation thus inflicted on a proud people and a proud culture,
we say sorry.
We the parliament of Australia respectfully request that this apology be received in the spirit in which it is offered as part of the healing of the nation.
For the future we take heart; resolving that this new page in the history of our great continent can now be written. We today take this first step by acknowledging the past and laying claim to a future that embraces all Australians.
A future where this parliament resolves that the injustices of the past must never, never happen again."
Apology to Australia's Indigenous People, PM Kevin Rudd, 2008
See Handout for print outs and questions
On May 17, 1954, U.S. Supreme Court Justice Earl Warren delivered the unanimous ruling in the landmark civil rights case Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas. State-sanctioned segregation of public schools was a violation of the 14th Amendment and was therefore unconstitutional. This historic decision marked the end of the "separate but equal" precedent set by the Supreme Court nearly 60 years earlier and served as a catalyst for the expanding civil rights movement during the decade of the 1950s.
Textbook: Chapter 3
Compare the following issues/events/protest methods that occurred in the US and AUS Civil Rights struggles
Tent Embassy / Greensboro & Sit-in Movement
SAFA Freedom Rides / CORE Freedom Riders
1967 Referendum / 1964 Civil Rights Act
Self-Determination / Black Power