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Fossil Fuels and non-Renuable Energy Sources
Transcript of Fossil Fuels and non-Renuable Energy Sources
Energy Sources Liam Taylor Fossil Fuels Types of Fossil Fuels Petroleum
Also called crude oil, the term petroleum encompasses multiple types of hydrocarbons, which are compounds consisting primarily of hydrogen and carbon but possibly containing other elements as well. Petroleum forms mainly from marine vegetation and bacteria that lived in the oceans or other saltwater environments millions of years ago. Petroleum deposits are often found in the same locations as natural gas, each of which can be extracted for energy production. Petroleum is used in the production of plastic and medications among many other products.
Coal forms from plants such as ferns, moss and trees which lived near shorelines and in swamps and bogs millions of years ago. When these plants die, they are slowly covered with sediment and over time pressed deep into the earth where they are affected by mounting heat and pressure. Under these conditions, the organic matter becomes richer in carbon and hydrogen, and increasingly deprived of oxygen
Natural gas forms mainly from the remains of plankton, or a type of small water organisms including algae. Consisting mostly of methane, natural gas is often found on top of deposits of petroleum due to its lower density, and is extracted in the same process. However, deposits containing only natural gas do exist. Natural gas is desirable in part because it burns cleaner than coal and petroleum
Methods of Extraction Petrolieum The drill bit, aided by the weight of thick walled pipes called "drill collars" above it, cuts into the rock. After drilling and casing the well, it must be 'completed'. Completion is the process in which the well is enabled to produce oil or gas. In many wells, the natural pressure of the subsurface reservoir is high enough for the oil or gas to flow to the surface. However, this is not always the case, especially in depleted fields where the pressures have been lowered by other producing wells, or in low permeability oil reservoirs Coal Generally there are two main types of extracting coal from the earth, these are.... Open cast coal mining recovers a greater proportion of the coal deposit than underground methods, as more of the coal seams in the strata may be exploited. Large Open Cast mines can cover an area of many square kilometers and use very large pieces of equipment. In this mining method, explosives are first used in order to break through the surface of the mining area. The coal is then removed by draglines or by shovel and truck. Once the coal seam is exposed, it is drilled, fractured and thoroughly mined in strips Surface mining accounts for around 80% of production in Australia, while in the USA it is used for about 67% of production. Globally, about 40% of coal production involves surface mining Blast mining or conventional mining, is an older practice that uses explosives such as dynamite to break up the coal seam, after which the coal is gathered and loaded on to shuttle cars or conveyors for removal to a central loading area. This process consists of a series of operations that begins with “cutting” the coalbed so it will break easily when blasted with explosives. This type of mining accounts for less than 5% of total underground production in the U.S. today. Natural Gas Natural gas is a gas consisting primarily of methane. It is found associated with other fossil fuels, in coal beds, as methane clathrates, and is created by methanogenic organisms in marshes, bogs, and landfills. It is an important fuel source, a major feedstock for fertilizers, and a potent greenhouse gas. Before natural gas can be used as a fuel, it must undergo extensive extensive processing to remove almost all materials other than methane
Natural gas is commercially produced from oil fields and natural gas fields. Gas produced from oil wells is called casinghead gas or associated gas Refining and use Natural gas Natural gas is a major source of electricity generation through the use of gas turbines and steam turbines Particularly high efficiencies can be achieved through combining gas turbines with a steam turbine in combined cycle mode Natural gas burns more cleanly than other fossil fuels, such as oil and coal, and produces less carbon dioxide per unit energy released. For an equivalent amount of heat, burning natural gas produces about 30% less carbon dioxide than burning petroleum and about 45% less than burning coal Petrolium Distillation Different boiling points allow the hydrocarbons to be separated by distillation. Since the lighter liquid products are in great demand for use in internal combustion engines, a modern refinery will convert heavy hydrocarbons and lighter gaseous elements into these higher value products. This process is called fractional distillation Coal When coal is used for electricity generation, it is usually pulverized and then combusted (burned) in a furnace with a boiler. The furnace heat converts boiler water to steam, which is then used to spin turbines which turn generators and create electricity 40% of the world electricity production uses coal. The total known deposits recoverable by current technologies, including highly polluting, low energy content types of coal (i.e., lignite, bituminous), is sufficient for many years. However, consumption is increasing and maximal production could be reached within decades Advantages and Disadvantages of Using fossil Fuels Advantages Disadvantages Depending on fuel, good availability Simple combustion process can directly heat or generate electricity Inexpensive Easily distributed Probable contributor to global warming Questionable availibility of some fuels...major price swings based on politics of oil regions Cause of acid rain Nuclear Power Alternatives and Posabilitys Advantages and Disadvantages Location What is Nuclear Energy? Nuclear power is produced by controlled (i.e., non-explosive) nuclear reactions. Commercial and utility plants currently use nuclear fission reactions to heat water to produce steam, which is then used to generate electricity. In 2009, 13-14% of the world's electricity came from nuclear power. Also, more than 150 naval vessels using nuclear propulsion have been built nuclear fission is a nuclear reaction in which the nucleus of an atom splits into smaller parts How it Works
A nuclear power plant is basically a steam power plant that is fueled by a radioactive element, like uranium. The fuel is placed in a reactor and the individual atoms are allowed to split apart. The splitting process, known as fission, releases great amounts of energy. This energy is used to heat water until it turns to steam.
From here, the mechanics of a steam power plant take over. The steam pushes on turbines, which force coils of wire to interact with a magnetic field. This generates an electric current.
Some are near the sea. In the UK they all are, because we don't have large enough lakes and rivers for cooling. whilst the sea is there as a good cold sink and transmission lines are not very long to get to load centres. In the US it is different, many stations are inland because the country is so much bigger, and there are sources of cooling water inland Advantages Disadvantages Nuclear energy tackles 3 of the greatest problems humanity has encountered in its struggle to get energy Nuclear power plants don't require a lot of space It doesn't pollute (it does, but in a very different way) Nuclear energy is by far the most concentrated form of energy One of the main disadvantages of nuclear energy is that nuclear explosions produce radiation, this radiation harms the cells of the body which can make humans sick or even cause them death. Illness can appear or strike people years after they were exposed to nuclear radiation.
Another disadvantage is that nuclear reactors only last for about forty to fifty years The waste products which are produced after generation of nuclear power and last for thousands of years, This is a significant polluting factor and there is the problem of safely disposing it Nuclear fusion, the process that powers the Sun, can play a big part in our carbon-free energy future. Culham is one of the world's leading fusion research laboratories. Our scientists and engineers are working with partners around the globe to develop fusion as a new source of clean energy for tomorrow's power stations.