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Scientific Revolution and Enlightenment
Transcript of Scientific Revolution and Enlightenment
new way of observing the world
discoveries in medicine, physics, and biology due to use of scientific method
advancements in technology Effects of the Scientific Revolution Started when scholars began publishing works that challenged the ideas of ancient thinkers and the church.
People began replacing old assumptions with new theories.
Introduced a way of thinking about the natural world that involved careful observation and the questioning of accepted beliefs.
Lasted from the end of the Renaissance Era through the late 18th century. Causes of the Scientific Revolution The expansion of trade included navigation problems which prompted research.
The studies of Plato, Aristotle, and Ptolemy caught people's interest and caused them to think and question the philosophers' ideas.
Exploration and conquest led the the discovery of unknown plant and animal life.
printing press allowed the spread of challenging ideas among European thinkers. More Achievements of the Scientific Revolution Rene Descartes- mathematician that showed all algebraic equations can be plotted on a graph.
Isaac Newton- formulated the laws of motion and universal gravitation, created calculus, built first practical reflecting telescope, developed theory of color, created empirical law of cooling, studied speed of sound, and also many other mathematical advancements. Some Achievements of the Scientific Revolution Nicolaus Copernicus- study astronomy and created heliocentric theory
Johannes Kepler- created the Three Laws of Planetary Motion
Galileo Galilei- studied the Laws of Motion and argued that science should be separate from the church The Enlightenment What Was the Enlightenment? What Caused It? More Causes Effects of the Enlightenment Further Effects The Enlightenment was an 18th century philosophical movement in Europe that stressed the importance of reason in analyzing and investigating. It was an intellectual, philosophical, social and cultural movement that began in Europe, but ideas eventually spread to overseas areas. It had a major effect on the world. One of the most apparent causes was the Thirty Years War (1618-1648). It was an extremely destructive, bloody war and it sparked German thinkers to write their thoughts on warfare and nationalism. These men are thought to be some of the first Enlightenment thinkers.
The Scientific Revolution, although many years before it, also enabled increased education and the ability to question, both key factors in the Enlightenment. Also, increased scientific developments and exploration led to exposure to other civilizations and philosophies, causing more thinking and the spread of ideas.Lastly, mistreatment by authorities in both autocratic governments and the church led to resentment among all classes of people. This caused people, especially educated people, to begin questioning governments, and the rights of the people. One of the main effects was the American and French Revolutions. Enlightenment thinkers such as Voltaire, Montesquieu and Rousseau literally had "revolutionary" ideas about government and economy. They spoke of God-given rights, and how the people should be more powerful than the government. These ideas appealed to oppressed peoples throughout the world, especially the British Colonies, and the oppressed classes of France. The ideas not only sparked revolutions, but greatly influenced America's constitution and France's many constitutions. -Caused governments to either limit power or caused people to completely overthrow oppressive governments
-Caused new economic theories, such a capitalism to begin to come into view
-Increasing interest in the sciences and technological development
-Questioning of religion and of the Church's authority
-Even caused some thought into women's rights (French women's salons where ideas were discussed)
-Science and reasoning became popular ways of thinking and encouraged freedom of expression Enlightenment Thinkers: Voltaire: Freedom of Religion and social reform. "I do not agree with what you say but I'll defend to death your right to say it Enlightenment Thinkers: Rousseau: Specifically believed that all men are equal.
"No Man has any natural authority over his fellow man" Enlightenment Thinkers: Montesquieu: the best form of government was one divided into different sources of power because he also believed that dictators were unjust.
"To become truly great, one has to stand with people, not above them." Enlightenment Thinkers: John Locke: government should exist only to protect the rights of its citizens. According to Locke, these rights included life, liberty, health, and possessions.
"All mankind... being all equal and independent, no one ought to harm another in his life, health, liberty or possessions." Nicolaus Copernicus Johannes Kepler Galileo Galilei Rene Descartes Isaac Newton Copernicus' Heliocentric Model Newton's Reflecting Telescope Galileo's Thermometer Descartes' calculations China v. Russian Empires Interactions -The Mongols, who took over China during the Qin dynasty, taught the Russians a lot about governing and fighting
-Constant trade with each other through the Silk Road.
-Both had disputes over land borders
-Treaty of Nerchinsk:
a) Brought peace for 150 yrs.
b) Signed August 27, 1689
c) Russians gave up the land north of the Amur River, east of the mouth of the Argun River but kept the area between Argun River and Lake Baikal
Similarities and Differences China Russia -Both were Gunpowder Empires
-Both controlled by Mongols at some point
-Both had to contend with a variety of ethnic and nationalist groups, (i.e. nomadic steppe peoples. )
-Both were isolated (China by choice, Russia by location) -Religion was based mainly off of Confucianism especially during the Qin dyansty. Although religion varied, Christianty was never one of them. -China was very innovative throughout history-manu achievements, very centralized government, standardized currency, organized
-Tried to isolate themselves from western culture (ethnocentric) -After the fall of Constantinople, Russia became the center of eastern orthodox Christianty Russia, due to vast territories, lacked extreme centralization and stayed mainly feudalistic for a long period of time.
-Russia also experienced very little innovation and advancement due to isolation
-tried to westernize Social Systems: Additionally, Russia's rigid class system had two significant classes in their political makeup, the nobility and the serfs/peasants. China’s class system was very similar to this. Due to several similarities between the two nations, most of the treaties signed between the Russians and Chinese powers were much more equal than analogous dealings with Europeans.