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Jasmine Major

on 13 November 2014

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Transcript of Chronemics

Time Orientations
Past- concerned with maintaining and restoring traditions in the present. They remember the good old times.

Present- In American culture we prefer instant gratification and short term benefits.

Future- Long-term view, work rather than play, good at resisting temptation. Trusts decisions about the future because you assume that what you choose now will pan out as expected.

Cross-Cultural Perspective on Time
"Latin culture is known to be a culture that uses time in a much less structured approach than mainstream American culture does." (Kplof 2001)

What is Chronemics?
The study of how we use and structure time.

Monochronic Vs. Polychronic
Monochronic Time
Polychronic Time
Doing many things at the same time.
Schedules are not important and are frequently broken.
Emphasis placed on
interactions and people, rather than on a time device.
Bruneau's Chronemic Structure
Chronemics and Power
Theories related to Chronemics


Chronemics & Power
Time is perceived in 3 ways.
Individual or psychological
Biological "clocks"
Cultural and subcultural

Halls Structure of Time
Sacred time- Mythology
Profane time-explicit time systems
Micro time-informal time perspectives
Sync time-pace we move at with others.
Personal time-individual experience
Metaphysical time- "Deja vu"
Biological time
Physical time
The relationship between time as a process and time as a duration.
Cultures operate on a past, present, future orientation.
Informal Time vs Formal Time
Western view on time
System where things are done one at a time-scheduled, arranged, managed
Clocks everywhere
Roots from industrial revolution-factories and trains
Years, months, weeks, etc.
Scheduled events with times
Time is money or wasted
Disrespectful when not on time

May have to deal with people who are less timely than you.
Take culture into consideration.
When an individual is lying they often pause in between statements.

Informal Time
Based on practice and takes a more personal or psychological orientation.
6 factors- duration, punctuality, urgency, activity, variety and monochronic/polychronic orientation
Formal Time
Refers to how a culture teaches time and views it.
How we measure most things, salaries, wages, time spent with friends.
Order, cycle, value, duration and tangibility
Conscious and can be taught
Chronemics & Power at Work
Waiting Time
Talk Time
Work Time
Waiting Time
Making someone of a lower status wait in the workplace is a sign of dominance
Talking Time
Direct correlation between an individual's power in an organization conversation
Work Time
Higher ups won't typically puncha time card.
-Their time is considered more important
Control employees time through scheduling
Full transcript