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World War 2
Transcript of World War 2
The United States
Favored Democracy and Capitalism
Held Imperial possessions
Previous allies during the "Great War"
Recieved reparations from Germany
Founding members of The League of Nations- The United States was not part of the League
Some tolerance of Socialism/Communism. Reactionary efforts cause "Red Scares"
Charles De Gaulle
Hero in World War I
Became influential politican and leader
Franklin Delano Roosevelt
Longest serving president
Reformer of US Government
Helped craft the "New Deal"
Dealing with mixed support for his programs, FDR pushed for Allied support since the war's inception.
Proclaimed American was the "Arsenal of Democracy."
Congress (and much of public) did not want to intervene in the conflict- Neutrality Acts of 1935,1936, 1937
Prime Minister from 1937 - 1940
Prime Minister 1940-1946
China was broiled in Civil War since 1931
Communist loyalists fought against Nationalist movements
The Chinese "Republic" was a authoritarian regime
The "New Life Movement" caused infighting and resistance
The Civil War engulfed the nation
The USSR mostly avoided the economic collapse of the Great Depression
Russia and it's satelittes were still reeling from the recent Russian Civil War. The ecnomomy was poor and the people were poorer
Years of infighting between Leon Trotsky (Mensheviks) and Joseph Stalin (Bolsheviks) cause Trotsky to go into exile
Stalin become Premier of USSR, launced the "Five-Year Plan"
The Five Year Plan causes mild economic growth and immense paranoia as Stalin and the Bolsheviks send millions to prison camps and to their deaths
The Great Purge tried to separate possible political opponents and those who would be set against Stalin's Communist Party.
This completely totalitarian style of Communism is refered to as "Stalinism"
Exiled in 1928
Killed in Mexico by KGP w/icepick
Fell under Facist regimes
Favored authoritarian control of government
Favored government controlled ecnomony
Had a distinct distaste for Communism
Produced sizeable militaries during the 1930's
Increased Territory claims during the 1930's
Member of The National Facist Party
Took power during the March of Rome in 1922
Facists form a syndicate with business, suppress socialist movments.
Answered the "Roman Question" between Italy and the Vatican in 1929.
Black Shirts, a brutal paramilitary group, ran the policing of the state
The Vatican declared neutrality during the war, but questions remain.
Helped defeat the Taisho Democracy Movement
The Great Depression
Facism, Nazism and Appeasement
The Sino-Japanese War
After the Stock Market Crash in the United States in 1929, most of the world fell into a deep recession.
The Great Depression caused civil strife and radical/reactionary demogouges
The United States tried through the New Deal to recover. However, little progress was made.
Britain and France suffer under the "Great Slump." Both Governments remain under "Conservative" leaders
Germany, led by President Hindenburg and the Weimar Republic, suffer a staggring inflation.
Paul Von Hindenburg
As a repercussion of the Great Depression, Japan decides to increase military spending.
Emperor Hirohito claims hakko ichiu, the divine right of the emperor to unite and rule the world.
Started by the Manchurian Incident in 1931, Emperor Tojo and the Imperial Army attack Manchuria
Japan resigns from the League of Nations in 1933
Japan slaughters hundreds of thousands of civilains in the conquest of Manchuria, climaxing at the Battle of Nanking in 1937
Japan engages Soviet forces in Manchuria, ending the Manchurican Conflict with the Soviet-Japanese Neutrality Act of 1941
Japanese occupation troops stay in China, causing a reign of terror for many Chinese
The empire spreads south and east encompassing the entire South Pacific
The Spanish Civil War
In 1936, the Republican fores led by Manuel Azaña starting coming under fire in Madrid by Nationalist forces from the West and North.
The Nationalists, led by Francisco Franco received Military assistance from Germany and Italy
The Republicans received assistance from the Soviet Union and Portugal
The war is marred by the gruesome warfare used, especially the bombing of the city Guernica by the German Luftwaffe in 1937
Many consider this a "preview" to World War II
King Alfonso XIII abdicated the throne in 1931. Manuel Azana led Spain into the Second Spanish Republic
Francisco Largo Caballero
Head of the Spanish Socialist Workers Party (PSOE)
Guernica by Pablo Picasso
The City of Guernica on April 27th, a day after the bombing
Japanese armor at Nanking
The Manhattan Project
The Project's team.
The Invasion of Poland
Nazi-Soviet Non-Agression Pact
Pact signed on between the Nazis and Stalin on August 24th, 1939.
Called for non-agression between two hated foes
Stunned the world.
Coordinated "Spheres of Influence"
Joseph Stalin standing next to Soviet foreign minister Vyacheslav Molotov (right) and the German foreign minister Joachim von Ribbentrop (left)
Don't know who he is
German forces "Blitzkrieg" into Poland September, 1st 1939
German Panzer Tank
The Winter War
A War fought between the Soviet Union and Finland.
Finland and Russia have regional disputes on the Eastern border
Stalin, as part of the Pact, laid claim to Norwegian terrirories
The Moscow Peace Treat is signed in 1940, Finland ends up ceding territory and other concessions
Workers in a Gulag, located on the Gulag Archipelago
Finnish Ski Infantry
The Soviet T-34 entered the battlefield in 1940
It was the most produced tank of WW2
Japan formed the Axis Pact with Germany and Italy on September 27, 1940.
The Phony War
For Eight months between October of 1939 to May 1940
Very little fighting happened in Europe
Invasion of France
In May, 1940 France, Holland, and the Netherlands
France built the Maginot Line to repel invasion
German Panzer and Infantry divisions flank the Wall
French armed forces clumble
French soldiers impressed by the Maginot Line
Hilter in Paris, 1941
French AMC-35 tank
The Flight of Dunkirk
Battle of Britain
A Nuclear Mushroom Cloud, a byproduct of the Manhattan Projet
British and French forces fled the country after the Fall of Paris in 1940
The Forces fled to Calais and several other costal cities for evaculation
Many civilian French and British risked their lives and property to save British and French soldiers
Charles De Gaulle was exiled after the Fall of Paris
The Germans start a brutal air raid campaign after Dunkirk
From 1940-1941, Luftwaffe Bombers and V2 Rockets terrorized British cities
German Aircraft didn't have good enough range, was instructed to hit civilian insteand of military targets, and an egmatic leader, Winston Church help kept Britain Strong
British Spitfire Fighter planes help cripple the Luftwaffe until airraids stoped October 31st, 1940
The Nazis decided to split France into a northern occupied, Western annexed areas, and Southern Vichy France
Vichy France was an independent French government loyal to the Nazis
The system was ripe with corruption, and would continue until 1944
British Spitfire fighter planes
Attack launced by the Germans on the Soviet Union
Ended the Non-Aggression Pact
The Germans try to attack in the Spring of 1941 to avoid the winter
The Cities of Leningrad and Moscow become sieged by Mid 1941. Millions die of wounds, starvation, and illness
Hitler decides to pause and seige the cities during the summer.
Citizens lying dead during the 900 day seige at Leningrad
Revised the Neutrality acts in 1939 in the United States
Stated that the US coudl sell muntions to belligerent nations
Buyers must carry it out on their own ships and pay in cash
Lend-Lease and American interventionalism
The Lend Lease Act is signed by FDR in 1941
The Bill allows the United States to effectively lend supplies and muntions to beligerent nations
The Act favored the Allies heavily
Japanese assets were seized by the United States and all oil exports to Japan ended by 1941
Left: Hitler speaking at the 1936 Olympic games in Berlin. Right: Jesse Owens winning one of his four gold medals at these Oylmpics
After the fall of France, Japan invades Thailand, Laos, and French Indochina (Vietnam) in 1940-1942
The retreat of the Phillippines
Geneal George MacArthur, almost defenseless in the Philippines retreats to Bataan.
The Philippines would be occupied until 1945
MacArthur is known to saw to the people of the Philippines "I Shall Return"
Douglas MacArthur Escaping
The Burned city of Dresden, Germany
Over 100,000 people died
Kurt Vonnegut, Author of Slaughterhouse Five, survived the firebombing
Slaughterhouse five is a novel based on a soldier who survives Dresden.
B-17 Flying Fortress Bombs of the United States dropped paratroopers, napalm, and bombs in airraids on German cities
The Batte of Normandy
The Battle of the Bulge
Exerpt from Saving Private Ryan
The Battle of Berlin, 1945
The Yalta Conference, the last conference for FDR, Churchill, and Stalin
Held Feburary, 1945
The Big Three talked specifically on fixing the problem inherent in Europe
The Three Disagreed. Stalin wanted more of the share for the Soviet Union while Churchill and FDR where cautious about any Soviet gains.
The disagreemets led to the "King Solomon effect"
The Tehran Conference was held in Tehran, Iran in 1943
The Big Three, Stalin, FDR, and Churchill agree to open a second front against Germany
Stalin agreed to invade Japanese territory in East Asia
An African American Unit in Italy, 1944
Catch-22, written by Joseph Heller, is a novel about a man who is a pilot in Italy. The horror of flying while being fired upon is illuminated significantly
General Ike Eisenhower talking to US troops before Operation Overlord
Decisive Battle on the Eastern Front
A record cold winter hits Russia as the Germans surround the city of Stalingrad
Soviet forces prevail in heavy street fighting and close quarters combat
The Germans are flanked when retreating and get soundly defeated
Russian Soldiers fighting at Stalingrad, 1942
Decisive Battle between Irwin Rommel and the British forces in Egypt in 1942
The British forces manage to hold the Germans away from the Suez Canal and access to oil reserves
British SAS troops in Desert Attire at El Alamein
Footage of El Alamein
General Benard Montgomery of England observing the battlefield of El Alamein
He successfully stopped the German Advance and turned the tide in Africa
Afrika Corps of the Wehrmarcht
U.S. Sherman Tank
General George Patton in a tank
British Soldiers fighting in the Desert, 1942
As supplies dwindled and the Japanese got more desparate, they began to launch suicde fighters at American Vessels
Many Japanese were starving on the mainland, but many were focused on fighting
The United States created a contingency plan of invading mainland Japan.
3.5 Million Soldiers were to be involved in the invasion, with an estimated death toll of roughly 1.5 milion Americans and an untold amount of Japanese
Douglas MacAuthur, returning to the Philippines in 1945
The Battle of Iwo Jima was deadly for both American and Japanese
22,000 Japanese soldiers were stationed on the Island, 216 remained.
The Battle of Midway : The Asian Turning Point
The Battle of Guadalcanal was particularly bloody due to the lak of resources that was made available for the mission
The United States only put about 20% of all Military resources towards the Pacific Front
"Island Hopping" was the main tactic to turning back the Japanese advance.
Disaster at the Dawn of the Atomic Age
Video of Hiroshima Bombing
Nuclear burn victim
Distruction at Nagasaki
Two atomic bombs, named "Fat Man" and "Little Boy"
Hiroshima is bombed first on August 9th, 1945, Two days later Nagasaki is bombed
Roughly 200,000 people die instantly of the blasts
More are left with scaring disabilities and mutations
International outcry for the devestating effect of the bonb
Harry Truman, The President who made the call to drop the two atomic bombs, said it was to end the war quickly.
The United States didn't have material to make any more A-Bombs
Hirohito Surrenders to the Allies on August 15th, 1945
Hirohito's Surrred to Douglas MacAuthur
As Berlin is surrounded, Hitler kills himself
On May 8th, 1945, the Untled States accepted the unconditional surrender of Germany
Triumpant Flag Waving at Stalingrad, 1942
Rosie the Riveter and Women at home
Rationing and Saving
Propaganda and Support
The Andrew Sisters: Boogie Woogie Bugle Boy from Buck Privates
How I Hate to Get Up in the Morning by Irving Berlin. Performed in "This is the Army, 1943"
Herr meets Hare- Warner Bros.
The Great Dictator -- Charlie Chaplin
At it's peak, 16 million women were working in Industrial postions during the War
Many women used working as a way to gain independence while others focused on supporting their country
A double standard arose, as independent women are feared by government officials as being promiscuous
Slacks and Calluses written by Constance Bowman and Clara Marie Allen chronicle their three month stint in a Bomber factory
WWII is the first conflict women will actually serve in the military as radio operators, nurses, secretaries, and other non-combatant roles
As the war ended and more men started coming back home, women were gently forced back into traditional gender roles.
This would have consequences
Rationing became a norm for the United States
The planning departments of the War effort put in place a ration stamp programs
Home gardens called "Victory" gardens sprung up around the nation
Though production in the U.S. increases significantly, the quality of life did not increase for many Americans. Most production went to war
Several Rubber, Metal, and Paper drives were hosted all over the country to help get enough raw materials to fund the war effort.
War Bonds also became a staple for every American to own
The Bonds allowed the U.S. a great amount of spending power
Executive Order 9066 initiated the Internment of all Japanese Citizens in 1942.
Many individuals were rounded up with whatever bags they could carry, told their property would be intact and then shipped off to one of many camps throughout the Western US
The Largest populations of Japanese Americans were from California
Several Different Camps involved different levels of security and autonomy.
Some Japanese were allowed to join the military. The 442nd Regiment is the most decorated regiment in WWII
When the war ended in 1945, many home owners found their possessions and property taken from them.
The United States was very slow to redress the concerns of those who were wronged
Cold relations lead to Cold War
The Holocaust, which occured in Germany from 1935-1945 killed at least 6 million Jews
Nazis were very Anti-Semetic. The Soviets also disliked the Jewish population, but liberated concentraion camps as they were found
The Nazis slowly established dominance over the Jewish population
The "Final Solution" created a series of concentration camps for Jews, Homesexuals, the mentally handicapped, political prisoners and others to rid the gene pool of Semetic and Inferior Blood
Stalin also killed Millions during his "Great Purge" in the 30's
Elie Wiesel's Night is a novel based on his expiriences at Auschwitz, the most notorious of the death camps
After the Conference of Yalta, Stalin began to retreat away from the rest of the Allies
Because no real agreement had been set up for a post war era, the State of Germany was split in two and the city of Berlin is split in Four.
The Potsdam Conference began tensions between the U.S. & the Soviet Union. The A-Bomb was used as leverage against a bad dea with the USSR.
The West's inability negoiate with Stalin causes fear of the spread of Communism
Due to the destruction done to the other major Powers, The United States and the Soviet Union remain the only Superpowers
Most experts think the approximate death count for World War II is 60 Million
Roughly 20 million soldiers died and 40 million civilians
Countries like the Soviet Union, Japan, China, France, Germany, Italy are heavily impacted by war-torn environments.
Countries like Great Britain, Finland, Holland. have sustained a fair portion of property damage
Many nations need to rebuild basic infastructue in 1945.
The United States is left virtually untouched by the horrors of a land war
Soldiers, however, faced stress an anxiety that could not be undone.
The effects of the A-Bomb were felt all over the world
The Soviet Union would test their first Atomic Bomb in 1949
This arms race would lead the world into a proverbial stand-off between West and East.
Nuclear energy became a reality to many Americans during the next decades.
Mass Gravesite at a Concentration Camp
Total War Video
The Best Years of Our Lives-1946
Winner of the Academy Award for Best Picture
Head General of Japanese Imperial Forces
Pope Pius XII
Pope Pius XI
US and British influences industrialize the nation during Taisho Democracy
The Peace Preservation Law of 1925 in response to Russian communism solidified the rule of the Showa dynasty
Showa means "Period of Enlighened Peace and Harmony
Chang Kai-Shek, FDR, and Churchill at the Cairo Conference in 1943
After World War II, was led by the Weimar Republic.
Crippled by debt, war reparations, and politicial factionialism
The National Socialist Party fought hard against other factions as well as the Republic
Nazism would grip the nation, and those who didn't want to follow along were marginalized
Regime created secret police units, the Gestapo and SS
Proclaimed the Aryan race was Neitzsche's "ubermenche." Nazis twist other popular philosophy and science.
Quasi-scientific theories and expiriments to "prove" superiority of race.
Meeting at the Reichstag, 1927
Gestapo executing a Russian
SS-Viking Miitary Unit. Units were both shock troopers and doubled as secret police
Triumph of the Will -1935
The Dust Bowl, 1933
Neville Chamberlain and Adolf Hitler, 1938
The Beer Hall Putsch, 1922
Started in 1942 after German scientists reported the ability of nuclear fission.
The Unlted States was terrified of advanced weaponry by the Nazis
The United States, employing mostly foreign scientists, help build the first atomic bomb
German Propaganda against Jews
Japanese childred at Heart Mountain Internment Camp
Video on Internment
Internment Housing Facilities
Map of Internment facilities across the United States
War rations from the U.S. Government
Interview of a Factory Worker
Firebombing of Dresden, 1944
Russia Today - The Great Purge
Great Video about the transition from WW2 to Cold War
Emigration of the Jews from Germany
Holocaust in video
Modern Marvels: The Manhattan Project
Women & the War
Minorities in WWII
The war would open opportunities for many minorities
Work & War was still very segregated
The Tuskegee Airmen are the most famous of the African American battalions. Very successful at protecting American Bombers
Many African American & Mexican Americans found work alongside women in factories
Mexican Americans in Los Angeles California would wear stylish "Zoot Suits." These flashy suits were seen as unpatriotic and would lead to the "Zoot Suit Riots."
The Tuskegee Airmen
Zoot Suit Riot Video
Tuskegee Airmen Video
Zoot Suit Riot... RIOT!!!!
The United Nations
Bretton Woods Conference
Created in 1945 after WWII
Originally began as part of the Atlantic Charter between the US & Britain
Replaces the League of Nations
Would prove controversial by many around the world
Allied nations would meet in Bretton Woods, NH in July 1944
Advised by John Maynard Keynes
Set exchange rates for currencies to the dollar & set dollar to gold exchange
Created the IMF (International Monetary Fund)
Bretton Woods Conference video
General Assembly- UN
United Nations- Brief History
1. What alliances existed during WWII?
2. Why did WWII happen?
3. How did the war play out in the World?
Greatest Imperial Power in the world
Great Depression brought a wave of political conservatism
Experienced Colonial upheaval-India
The Treat of Versallies and a shaky peace
The Treaty, signed in 1919 after the "Great War," blamed the war on Germany- Germany forced to reduce arms
Germany had to pay reparations to England and France, which they could not afford- France acquires Alsace-Loraine
German "Weimar Republic" has to print m to pay debt= hyperinflation by 1921
U.S. through the "Dawes plan" loans money to Germany to prop up government
Germany avoided occupation, but felt "Stabbed-in-the-back"
League of Nations did not have an army and the United States, the new world power, did not help enforce. Failure of "Collective Security"
Several disputes (China v Japan in Manchuria, Spanish Civil War, allegations of US slave trading in Liberia) show the weakness of the League
Northern Europe Falls - Nuclear Ambitions
Denmark and Norway fell to the Nazis by April 1940 in quick fighting.
Holland, Belgium, Luxembourg
The National Socialist (Nazi) Party gets first recognition in 1923 with the Beer Hall Putsch.
Adolf Hitler, a WWI Leutenient, was arrested. In prison, Hitler writes Mein Kampf, a manifesto for the Nazi Party
In 1934, Hitler wins a plurality as Chancellor of Germany. Under popular demand, Hindenburg steps down and Hitler is promoted to Chancellor- Night of the Long Knives
Between 1934-1939, Germany annexes "Libenstraum" for the Germany People while pushing Nazism in all public and private life
Nazi Officials begin systemic discrimination of Jewish citizens- Kristallnacht- Night of Broken Glass in 1938
In Italy, Mussolini pushes for "New Imperialism." Annexes Albania, launches war on Ethiopia.
In 1938, Neville Chamberlain, Prime Minister of England, signs the Munich Pact. Through Appeasement, Chamberlain announces "he has secured peace in our time."