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Growth and Development Project

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Alison Langendoen

on 18 December 2014

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Transcript of Growth and Development Project

Health and Wellbeing
Growth and Development Theorists
Parent Influence
Role Models
- promotes good eating habits
-children eat what parents eat
-sit together, turn off tv
- facilitate physical exercise
-children will exercise more when parents join

- authoritative vs permissive - amount of
sedentary behaviour
Growth and Development
Problem of Obesity

need opportunity to develop and practice motor skills
- 60 minutes structured activity - organized
- 60 minutes or more free play - independent and/or interact
(Krakow, 2011)

too much sedentary behaviour with new technologies (iPads)

Canada - 15% overweight, 6.3% obese
United States- 1 in 4 children obese
factors: improper nutrition and exercise habits
ALSO: lack of motor and object control skills
-less likely to participate
-good skills, 2% MVPA, 1.2% VA = 12 minutes
more (12 hour), 84 minutes (one week)

Vital Signs
80-120 bpm
23-30 breaths per min
92/56 mmHg
2.27 kg/yr
6-7.5 cm/yr
3 years
5 years
use stairs
(Potter & Perry, 2014)

Social interactions increase
Assume roles based on social context
Sociodramatic play
Imaginary friends
Stress and Illness
Revert back to dependent behaviours
Guilt and Responsibility
(Potter & Perry, 2014)
Short, simple explanations
Use literal language
Play games
Allow them to help
(with preschooler)
(Jarvis, 2014)
(Potter & Perry, 2014)
(with parent)
Explain all procedures
Assure them of all normal findings

Health History
Prenatal/Postnatal status
Childhood illnesses

Potter, P. A. & Perry, A.G. (2014). Canadian fundamentals of nursing (5th ed.). J.C. Ross-Kerr, M.J. Wood, B.J. Astle, & W. Duggleby (Eds.).Toronto, ON: Elsevier Canada.

Jarvis, C. (2014). Physical examination & health assessment (2nd ed.). A. J. Browne, J. MacDonald-Jenkins, & M. Luctkar-Flude (Eds.). Toronto, ON: Saunders/Elsevier, 2014. Print.
Jean Piaget
Sensorimotor (birth-2 years)
Preoperational (2-7 years)
Concrete operations (7-11 years)
Formal Operations (11-adulthood)
Preoperational Stage
learn with symbols and mental images
see only from own point of view
play is initial method of non-language use of symbols
parallel play
imitation and make belief
Nursing Implications
recognize play as the way the child understands the events taking place
parents can use toy thermometers and stethoscopes to encourage communication about health care procedures
Sigmund Freud
oral stage (birth to age 12-18months)
anal stage (12-18 months to 3 years)
phallic or oedipal stage (3-6 years)
latency stage (6-12 years)
genital (puberty to adulthood)
Phallic or Oedipal Stage
genital organs become the focus of pleasure
boys become interested in the penis while girls become aware of the absence (penis envy)
child fantasizes about parent of opposite sex as their first love interest
end of stage is characterized by a love for the same gender parent to win recognition and acceptance
Nursing Implications
nurse must assure parent that a child identifying with the parent of the same sex is a normal developmental stage
(Potter & Perry, 2014)

Accept children's sexual interest, such as fondling their own genitals, as a normal area of exploration
(Pillitteri, 2014)
Erik Erikson
Lawrence Kohlberg
4-5- fruits and veggies 3-4- grain
2-milk 1-meat

Day Care Programs
CACFP - improves quality and quantity
- resources, education, monitoring
Colour Me Healthy- lesson on importance
of fruits and veggies
- promotes good habits
(Health Canada, 2007)
(Korenman, Abner, Kaestner, & Gordon, 2013)
Witt & Dunn, 2012)
(Health Canada, 2011)
• (Krakow, 2011)
(Schary, Cardinal, Loprinzi, 2012)
(Krakow, 2011)
(Witt & Dunn, 2012)
(Williams, Pfeiffer, O’Neill, Dowda, McIver, Brown, Pate, 2012)
Health Canada. (2007). Eating Well with Canada’s Food Guide. Retrieved from
Health Canada. (2011). Food and Nutrition: Children. Retrieved from
1. Trust vs. Mistrust (birth- 1 year)
2. Autonomy vs. Sense of Shame and Doubt (1-3 years)
3. Initiative vs. Guilt (3-6 years)
4. Industry vs. Inferiority (6-11 years)
5. Identity vs. Role Confusion (12-18 years)
6. Intimacy vs. Isolation (18-35 years)
7. Generativity vs. Self-absorption and Stagnation (35-65 years)
8. Integrity vs. Despair (65+)
Initiative vs. Guilt
child learns to initiate own activities using fantasy and imagination to explore their environment
conflicts arise between the desire to explore and the limits placed on his/her behavior which may lead to frustration and guilt
Nursing Implications
teaching things such as impulse control and cooperative behaviors are necessary at this point
Pre-Conventional Level
Conventional Level
Post Conventional Level
Stage 1: Punishment and Obedience Orientation
response to moral dilemma in terms of absolute obedience to authority and rules
avoidance of punishment or the unquestioning deference to authority
child will do as told by authority figure

Stage 2: Instrumental Relativist Orientation
recognizes that more than one view may be correct
opportunity to do something morally correct is based on satisfying ones needs and occasionally the need of others
Nursing Implications
nurses should be aware of this type of thinking and reinforce to parents that child cannot become ill because of wrongdoing
(Potter & Perry, 2014)
(Potter & Perry, 2014)
(Potter & Perry, 2014)
(Potter & Perry, 2014)
(Potter & Perry, 2014)
(Potter & Perry, 2014)
(Potter & Perry, 2014)
Stubbe, D. (2007). Child and adolescent psychiatry a practical guide. Retrieved from

Pillitteri, A. (2014). Maternal and child health nursing: care of the childbearing and childrearing family. Retrieved from
Irby, B., Brown, G. H., Lara-Aiecio, R., Jackson, S.A. (2013). Handbook of educational theories. Retrieved from
Korenman, S., Abner, K. S., Kaestner, R., & Gordon, R. A. (2013). The Child and Adult Care Food Program and the nutrition of preschoolers.
Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 28
(2), 325-336. doi: 10.1016/j.ecresq.2012.07.007
Krakow, E. (2011). Physical Activity in Early Childhood: Setting the Stage for Lifelong Healthy Habits.
Parenting Series.
[PDF document]. Retrieved from
Schary, D. P., Cardinal, B. J., Loprinzi, P. D. (2012). Parenting Style Associated with Sedentary Behaviour in Preschool Children.
Early Child Development and Care, 182
(8), 1015-1026. doi: 10.1080/03004430.2012.678596
Williams, H. G., Pfeiffer, K. A., O’Neill, J. R., Dowda, M., McIver, K. L., Brown, W. H., Pate, R. R. (2012). Motor Skill Performance and Physical Activity in Preschool Children.
Obesity a Research Journal, 16
(6), 1421-1426.
doi: 10.1038/oby.2008.214
Witt, K. E. & Dunn, C. (2012). Increasing Fruit and Vegetable Consumption among Preschoolers: Evaluation of Color Me Healthy. Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior, 44 (2), 107-113. Retrieved from
Language development
Fantasy vs. Reality
Concrete Experience

(Kolucki & Lemish, 2011)
(Potter & Perry, 2014)
Be a Model
Safe practices
Desire to learn
(Potter & Perry, 2014)
(Kolucki & Lemish, 2011)
(Potter & Perry, 2014)
Kolucki, B., Lemish, D. (2011). Communicating with children. Retreived from http://www.unicef.org/cbsc/files/CwC_Web(2).pdf
Retrieved from: http://www.gooddaypreschool.com/?page_id=13
Retrieved from: http://www.blue-balloon.com/our-services/preschool/
Retrieved from: http://www.sheknows.com/parenting/articles/1040705/safety-tips-for-biking-with-kids
Retreived from: http://www.rodalenews.com/kids-and-playgrounds
Retrieved from: http://www.healthbeautycity.com/think-healthy-food/

Retrieved from: http://everydaylife.globalpost.com/DM-Resize/photos.demandstudios.com/getty/article/56/153/86500870.jpg?w=600&h=600&keep_ratio=1&webp=1
Retrieved from: http://privateislandparty.com/products/toy-stethoscope-1763/
Left image: http://cen.ct.gov/cen/cwp/view.asp?a=4348&q=510566
Right image: http://www.shirleys-preschool-activities.com/goals-for-preschool-training.html
Retrieved From: http://www.putmeinthestory.com/content/blog/encourage-your-child-to-be-imaginative.html
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