Hooke's

Law Physics of Bridges By Amanda and Burton The stretch or compression of an object is directly proportional to the applied force

Simply stated, strain is directly proportional to stress

the heavier a load applied, the more compression you will see Young's Modulus E is the Young's modulus

F is the force applied to the object

A0 is the original cross-sectional area through which the force is applied

ΔL is the amount by which the length of the object changes

L0 is the original length of the object. A law of elasticity stating the stretch of a spring is in direct proportion with the load applied to it This Means A ratio used in connection with Hooke's law

A measure of the stiffness of an "elastic" material

Also a quantity used to characterize materials Equation X is the displacement of the end of the "spring" from its equilibrium (natural) position

F is the force being applied to the "spring"

And K is a constant called the rate or spring constant F=-kx This quantity can be determined experimentally from the slope of a stress-strain curve of a certain material

Measured in units of pressure- Pascals

Predicts how much a material sample extends under tension and shortens under compression Equation Our Bridge Design We decided to create a simple beam bridge Why it Failed The biggest reason was that we had not left enough time for our glue to dry, so the inside of our bridge was still damp and very weak

Also, we did not take care to make sure all parts of the bridge were equally supported by enough cardboard and glue

We did not create the inside of the beam sturdy enough to withstand much weight The Physics Behind It As Hooke's law states, the extension (and in our case compression as well) of an object is directly proportionate to the applied force Ways To Improve We could have put a lot more thought and consideration into how we constructed the inside of our bridge

We assumed that if we just put lots of cardboard and glue on the inside then it would be very sturdy

Now we know that if we had done more precise arranging we could have made the inside structures stronger and able to withstand the compression and tension inflicted upon it by the weights. Bibliography http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hooke's_law http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Young's_modulus Phsyics Book To try and make it even sturdier we placed flaps on the bottom of our bridge that when put placed between the gap in the table, would push against the table creating tension in the top of our bridge to counteract the compression caused by the force of the weights Our plan was that, by placing mini structures inside the beam, our bridge would be very sturdy When more and more weight was added to our bridge, the bottom of our bridge began to extend and the top of the bridge compressed accordingly Once our bridge bent past its elasticity limit (Hooke's Law, and Young's Modulus) it could no longer keep its shape or hold the amount of weight and it collapsed

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# Hooke's Law, Young's Modules Efficiency

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