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What is a sex reassignment surgery?
Transcript of What is a sex reassignment surgery?
Factors Associated with Satisfaction or Regret Following
Male-to-Female Sex Reassignment Surgery
1. To examine possible associations between subjective outcomes of MtF SRS and relevant preoperative factors identified by prior research.
2. To investigate possible associations between subjective outcomes and postoperative factors, such as surgical complications and the physical and functional results of surgery.
• 232 postoperative MtF SRS patients of Toby Meltzer
• Portland, Oregon
• Mailed questionnaire
• Underwent MtF SRS from May 1994 through March 2000 (N=727)
• 10 preoperative predictor variables to transsexual typology
• 4 preoperative predictor variables related to compliance with established treatment regimens
• 4 preoperative predictor variables related to other relevant mental, physical, and social factors
• 4 postoperative predictor variables
• 4 postoperative outcome variables related to satisfaction or regret after SRS
Planning the procedure
Be diagnosed with gender identity disorder by a mental health professional to ensure sex reassignment surgery is the correct decision for the individual.
Receive therapy in order to mentally prepare for dramatic change.
Must have a year of real-life experience of gender change by adapting to the world as the opposite sex.
Take approved hormones that enhance opposite sex features. Men receive more Estrogen while Woman receive more Testosterone.
A full understanding of the surgery is mandatory.
The procedure will not be conducted if the patient is not mentally or physically made.
A sex reassignment surgery is a surgical procedure that modifies a person's genital area to resemble and function as the opposite sex's genital. It is a life-changing surgery which can affect someone physically, mentally, and socially. Because of it's complexity, it requires many mandatory steps and preparation in order to receive approval.
More than 96% of participants gave a positive rating to their overall happiness with their SRS result and 97% reported that SRS had improved the quality of their lives. No participants regretted SRS outright and only 6% were even occasionally regretful. Only two participants (1%) had reverted to the male gender role, even temporarily, and in both cases their reversions were of little significance. Superficially, the results of MtF SRS appear to be so uniformly good that looking for factors predictive of satisfaction or regret might seem like a pointless exercise. However, because existing beliefs concerning putative predictors of satisfaction or regret continue to affect the lives of candidates for MtF SRS and continue to influence the Standards of Care, such an investigation is warranted.
Lawrence, A. A. (2003). Factors associated with satisfaction or regret following male-to-female sex reassignment surgery.Archives of Sexual Behavior, 32(4), 299-315. Retrieved from https://ezproxy.pgcc.edu/login?url=http://search.proquest.com/docview/205937879?accountid=13315
14 years old Daughter wants to undergo sex reassignment
Identity vs. Role Confusion
- the major personality achievement during the adolescence life of a teenager and crucial phase towards productivity as an adult.
Its the stage where 12 to 18 years of age are looking for identity or role in their life.
ex.) They ask “Who Am I?”, “ Where do I fit?”, “How should I look?”, “What is my gender role?”, etc.
Information-Processing Approach that combines social-learning and cognitive developments; Both environment pressure and cognitive affects the child’s gender-role development.
The interaction or response of the child influence the cognitive thinking
The environment such as peers, parents, and the culture shapes the foundation of the person gender-role development.
The Culturally wise, District Columbia legalize gay marriage and the amount of homosexual in the society can affect the child’s gender role especially when she is on the stage of exploration.
Gender Schema Theory
It can lead to shallow, directionless, and unpreparedness for the adult stage
It tends to lead on a rebellious stage of a teenager
Effects of Role Confusion
Possible Reason for Sex Reassignment
- Understanding that she is in the age of discovery and therefore, it might change on later stage.
- Aggressive reaction would not help the child’s confusion, but rather it will even makes it worse.
- Since teenager that is “confuse” tends to have low Commitment and Exploration, making them explore more with guidance might help the child to build her own identity.
- According to Erikson's, every teenager experience this temporary distress as they try to figure out their identity; Values and Goals usually tend to occur later after this stage.
- The lack of proper guidance from the parents might lead to her role confusion
- Since District Columbia legalize gay marriage, the amount of homosexual in the society might increase. Therefore, the environment can affect the child’s gender role especially when she is on the stage of exploration.
- Peer pressure might have affected her gender role, which led to a decision of sex reassignment.
- Undeveloped early stage might have affected her sense of Commitment to her own identity.
Video from: YouTube
Parents, Families, Friends of Lesbians and Gays (PFLAG) are a national organization with multiple chapters across the country. PFLAG was founded in 1972 and is the nation’s largest family and ally organization. PFLAG is committed to advancing equality and full societal affirmation of LGBT people through its threefold mission of support, education, and advocacy. PFLAG National is located in Washington, DC. PFLAGDC sponsors support groups for the LGBT community located in NW on Nebraska Ave at Metropolitan United Methodist Church. PFLAG is located at Whitman-Walker Health Clinic on 14th Street NW.
The Office of Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual and Transgender Affairs is a permanent, cabinet-level office within the Office of Community Affairs in the Executive Office of the Mayor. The office was established in 2006 to address the concerns of LGBT residents in Washington, DC. Their mission is to continue fulfilling through the four services they offer, which include capacity building, outreach, education and training programs, and technical assistance. The Office of GLBT is located in NW on Pennsylvania Ave.
Casa Ruby is a local organization that was founded by Ruby Jade Corado who is also a transgender woman. She has devoted 20 years as an advocate for the inclusion of transgender, gender queer and non-conforming gay, lesbian, and bisexual people in main stream society. She has fought for LGBT human rights, transgender liberation, immigration equality, access to health care, hate crimes and violence and many other issues. Casa Ruby is the only bilingual multicultural LGBT organization that provides lifesaving services and programs to the LGBT community. Their mission is to create success life stories among the LGBT community. They would like to see the LGBT community pursue their dream and achieve success in their lives without fear of discrimination, harassment, or violence. Casa Ruby is located in NW on Georgia Ave.
In the article we reviewed, the research method used was a self-report. The journal article asked the participants to answer questions about the satisfaction after they underwent male to female gender reassignment surgery. Each participant was asked the same questions in the same way to explain their satisfaction.
Whitman-Walker Health in Washington DC has behavioral health therapy groups in which they offer a support group to lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) individuals. They have two locations, one on 14th Street NW and another on Martin Luther King Jr., Ave SE. They can be reached at (202) 745-7000. Whitman-Walker Health offers different groups that are LGBT-specific for the best fit possible.
Casa ruby. (2014). Retrieved from http://www.casaruby.org/index.html
Office of gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender affairs. (2014). Retrieved from
Pflag national. (2014). Retrieved from http://community.pflag.org/
Berk, Laura. (2014). Exploring Lifespan Development: Second Custom Edition for Prince
George’s Community College. Pearson Education Inc.
McLeod, S. (2008, January 1). Erik Erikson | Psychosocial Stages | Simply Psychology. Retrieved October 30, 2014.
Whitbourne, S. (2012, March 3). Are You Having an Identity Crisis? Retrieved October 30, 2014.
Undergo reassignment is a procedure
that changes genital organs from one
gender to another
Gender identity is an extremely important
characteristic for human beings.
Changing sexual identity is among the
most significant changes that a human can
If the gender issue is caused by serious
mental illness like schizophrenia,
dissociative disorder and so on, then
it is also best resolved by treating that
Changes in Trans Men
More body and facial hair
Your clitoris (a small, sensitive part of the
female genitals) getting bigger
Your periods stopped
An increased sex drive (libido)
Your voice may also get slightly deeper, but it
will not be as deep as other men’s voices
As we know that the Standards of Care
don't require therapy to access chemical
intervention even though it is recommended.
But without a therapy, any health worker who
refers someone to an endocrinologist has
to screen the patient for mental illness that
could affect decision-making.
Advantages vs. Disadvantages
You might carries the risks of infection
You need to return for repairs
Hair loss from the scalp
Sleep apnea – a condition that causes
interrupted breathing during sleep
She might receive prejudice and discrimination and can lead to bullying and harassment
They are vulnerable due to lack of support for transgender youth in US.
The stress from the environment can lead to a lower performance in school
The role confusion and society’s response can lead to guilt and shame of the individual
Stress effect can also hinders her to develop a positive identity.
Stress and Depression most likely would occur
It can also create a distance between a relationship with family, friends, or the community
She might experience discrimination, victimization, social stigma, or post-traumatic stress.
Worst case scenario as a consequence is committing suicide
WE Do Not Agree with her undergoing Sex Reassignment Surgery