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Transcript of Poultry
Maximum legal temperature for holding for cold service
Maximum time for holding
Hot and cold holding
What must one consider?
Slower cooking method that is better suited to the tougher nature of the flesh and size of the bird
Why do we braise older Poultry?
Frying develops flavour and colour
Because it is lean it will cook quickly and evenly
Dry method of cookery is most suited for prime tender cuts
Produces the desired texture
Why do we
shallow fry poultry?
Chicken sauté and portion control
Increases shelf life without too much preparation
Slows down bacterial growth
Slows down decomposition of the flesh
Ready to use
Why is refrigeration advantageous for poultry preservation?
Cut for sauté
Breast / Supreme
Cut for sauté
Strips / Dice
Can you name the
Pale pink colour
What colour will corn fed be?
Dry to the touch (Not slimy or sticky)
Plump breast and firm flesh
Breast bone should be flexible
No burn marks on the hock
No bruising, broken bones, blood clotting or broken skin
Quality points in chicken
Name the quality
points in Poultry
These are the smallest European
game birds, like tiny partridges.
As they are so small, two birds can be served for a good portion, but one is usually enough, and eating them with fingers is almost obligatory.
Quails must be eaten really fresh - within 24 hours of being killed - and they are most usually simply roasted.
This is probably the best known and most popular of all the game birds.
It is available fresh and frozen and can often be found in larger supermarkets.
Pheasant should be hung for at least 3 days for a good flavour to develop.
Young birds are best roasted but more mature birds which have a better flavour - will be tougher, so need the longer cooking of casseroling, braising or pot-roasting to ensure they are tender.
One pheasant will serve two or three people when roasted, and larger mature birds may serve up to four when casseroled with other ingredients.
These are small game birds which will serve only one portion each.
Young plucked birds weigh up to 425g / 14 oz.
They are best roasted, but are also good to cook under the grill or on a barbecue.
Older birds will weigh
500g / 1 lb. or more.
Can you name the different poultry types?
When is it game and when is it poultry?
What about farmed? Does it become game or poultry?
Game vs. Farmed vs. Poultry
Removal of any excess fat during preparation
Use of additional ingredients to enhance flavour
Correct trussing before roasting
Ensure the goose is well cooked (20 minutes per 500g)
Monitor throughout the cooking process and respond accordingly
Removal of excess fat during cooking
Use of fat for other dishes
Each portion should have a piece of white and dark meat
Each portion should be of equal size
The bird should be 1½ to 1¾ kg to give correct portion size
The bird should be cut so there are 8 even sized pieces, 4 white, 4 dark
Chicken sauté and portion control
Removes O² needed for airborne bacteria to multiply
Can you name them?
Prevents dying out
Why vacuum pack chicken?
Drum stick, thigh and leg 1/4
Hung for 3 days, with moist skin tinted pearly white.
A whole frozen turkey takes at least 48 hours to defrost; let it thaw gradually in the refrigerator and finally at room temperature for a few hours.
Once thawed, cook as soon as possible. It must be cooked through to the centre.
Allow 500g / 1 lb per person.
Turkey is also often available boneless and diced, and as leg and breast portions.
Pigeons do not need to be hung. If plump and young, one bird will serve a portion.
They have a rich, dark meat.
A close relative of the chicken, this fairly dry, dark meat has a mild, gamey flavour.
Cook as for chicken, but bear in mind the dryness of the meat.
Moist cooking methods such as casseroling are recommended.
Also suitable for roasting, when the breast should be covered with bacon to keep it moist.
A relatively new product to appear, ostrich meat is now being farmed quite extensively.
It is very dark red and is not dissimilar to beef, but with a much lower fat content.
Because it has so little fat, however, care must be taken not to allow it to dry out during cooking.
As with most other game, grouse is much better if well hung, for about 4-5 days, sometimes even as long as 2 weeks for those who prefer a really gamey flavour.
They are usually only available fresh. The breastbone of young birds should feel soft and pliable.
They are best roasted.
One grouse will usually serve only one person, although sometimes the really large ones will serve two.
Birds aged up to 6 months.
If too young, the bird will not have enough meat to be worth eating.
Look for a breast that, when pinched, feels meaty.
Duck freezes well because of its high fat content.
It is also available as portions and as boneless breast.
Choose a young bird with pliable breastbone and a plump, well-filled breast.
A gosling weighs up to 2kg / 4lb.
When it reaches 8-9 months old it becomes a goose and weighs 3-6kg / 6-12lb.
Thereafter it becomes much fatter and tougher, and needs much longer cooking.
Domestic fowls, such as chickens, turkeys, ducks, or geese, raised for meat or eggs.