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Early American Civilizations
Transcript of Early American Civilizations
between 1500 B.C. and A.D. 1450, agricultural civilizations grew throughout Mexico, Central America, and South America
cities were centered around market places
between 1500 and 600 B.C.
One of earliest agricultural societies to live along the Gulf Coast of Mexico.
Archaeologists found stone heads weighing up to 40 tons made of volcanic rock that are believed to be of Olmec rulers
Religion most likely played an important role in their lives
The Olmec carved huge stone heads. Some were as high as 10 feet tall and weighed several tons.
between A.D. 300 and 900
located in modern-day Guatemala, Belize and Southern Mexico
cities were religious centers built around enormous stepped temple-pyramids
they were astronomers and mathematicians
this knowledge was used to schedule religious rituals, plant, and harvest
365 day calendar and #0
played a game called pok-a-tok
their disappearance is a mystery, however evidence found in 2002 suggests that possibly a massive series of civil wars is responsible
Pok-a-tok was taken very seriously and only the best of athletes could play. It was a combination of Soccer, Basketball, Racquetball, and Volleyball. It was played with a six inch rubber ball and a hoop which was placed vertically, could barely fit the ball in it and was placed twenty to thirty feet above the ground. The object was not only to get the ball in the hoop but to also keep the ball in motion. They did this with any part of their body except their hands. It was taken so seriously that only Priests could coach teams. Unlike our sports now the losing team of Pok-a-tok was executed.
between A.D. 1100’s and 1521
Lived in central Mexico and on an island near the western shore of Lake Texcoco
Their capital city was Tenochtitlan, an agricultural center and marketplace
They built canals, bridges, and stone causeways to connect the island to the mainland
The powerful Aztec army conquered all of Mexico by A.D. 1500
There was a defined political and social hierarchy
They had many gods
Sacrificed thousands of prisoners to the sun god
A.D. 1200 to 1533
Developed in the Andes Mountains of South America in what is now Peru, Chile, parts of Ecuador, Bolivia and Argentina
They had a complex political system that included royal governors and tribute collection
Built a complex road system
The Inca emperor had complete control over the lives of the common people
Ruler is called the Sapa Inca