Al-Khowarizmi and the development of algebra

Al-Khowarizmi was a Persian mathematician and astronomer who was believed to have been born around 800 CE and died in 850 CE during the Islamic Empire, in the Middle Ages. He was known for the book he wrote about algebra. He also wrote a book about Hindu Arabic numbers and how to use them.

**Mathemtical concepts from the arabs**

**Arabs & Mathematics**

by Dimeji Abiola

Matilda Simmonds

Michaela Caldwell

Emma Lamden

Georgia Meaks

http://www.studyladder.co.uk/learn/language-culture/activity/19226

Arabic numerals or Hindu numerals are the ten digits (0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9). They are descended from the Hindu-Arabic numeral system developed by ancient Indian mathematicians, in which a sequence of digits such as "975" is read as a single number. The Indian numerals are traditionally thought to have been adopted by the muslim Persian and Arab mathematicians in India, and passed on to the Arabs further west.

Mohammad Abu'l Wafaal'Buzjani

Abu KamilShujaibnAslamibn Muhammad ibnShuja

His work was impacting in the understanding and knowledge of math in the Middle Ages as mathematicians in Europe read his book. They began to use these Arabic numbers (0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12,13...) and used them instead of the Roman numerals (I, II, III, IV, V, VI, VII, VIII, IX, X, XI, XII, ...). The Arabic number system makes it easier to do mathematics with, as Roman numbers have no place values. This means that they can only deal with whole numbers and do simple equations. Roman numerals also have no number zero.

LET US COUNT IN ARABIC!

He is best known for the first use of the tangent function and compiling tables of sines and tangents at 15' intervals. This work was done as part of an investigation into the orbit of the Moon.

Abu'l-Wafa translated and wrote commentaries, since lost, on the works of Euclid, Diophantus and Al-Khwarizmi. For example, he translated Arithmetica by Diophantus.

Abu KamilShuja is sometimes known as al'Hasib and he worked on integer solutions of equations. He also gave the solution of a fourth degree equation and of a quadratic equations with irrational coefficients.

Born: about 850 in (possibly) Egypt

Died: about 930

Abu Kamil's work was the basis of Fibonacci's books. He lived later than Al-Khwarizmi; his biggest advance was in the use of irrational coefficients (surds).

Born: 10 June 940 in Buzjan (now in Iran)

Died: 15 July 998 in Baghdad (now in Iraq)

830: Quadratics

890: Irrational numbers

960: Centers of gravity

952-953: Arithmetic

978: Spherical trigonometry

973-1048: Trigonometry

1120: Cubic equations

1190: Cubics

1250: Parallel postulate

1390: Decimals

1470: Symbols in maths

**Conclusion**

His work was impacting in the understanding and knowledge of math in the Middle Ages as mathematicians in Europe read his book. They began to use these Arabic numbers (0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12,13...) and used them instead of the Roman numerals (I, II, III, IV, V, VI, VII, VIII, IX, X, XI, XII, ...). The Arabic number system makes it easier to do mathematics with, as Roman numbers have no place values. This means that they can only deal with whole numbers and do simple equations. Roman numerals also have no number zero.

Arabic mathematicians of the time also developed the ideas of balancing equations and fractions. These ideas were not discovered by European mathematicians until after the medieval period when the Europeans spent more time on scholarly pursuits.

There is a misconception that the Arabic scholars never advanced the field, just kept it from receding by reproducing Greek works to Arabic. The development provided during the golden age of Islam go unmentioned in many modern books about the history of mathematics.

In closing, Arabic mathematicians advanced the field of mathematics by making advances in algebra, trigonometry, and by adding non-whole numbers into mathematics. Several mathematical terms come from Arabic words, and the numerals used around the world come from the Arabic numeral system.