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GCSE PE Respiratory System

support presentation for the delivery of respiratory system
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sarah james

on 13 September 2015

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Transcript of GCSE PE Respiratory System

1.2.3: The Respiratory System
1.2.3: The Respiratory System
Results Plus Plenary
On completion of this unit you should:
1. Have an overview of the respiratory system and its functions
2. Understand the immediate and short terms effects of exercise/physical activity on the respiratory system.
3. Understand the long term effects of exercise/physical activity on the respiratory system.
Breathing quickens and deepens
Immediate and short term effects of exercise on the respiratory system
increased number of alveoli
Effects of regular participation in and long term benefits of exercise and physical activity
Taking in oxygen and passing out carbon dioxide through gaseous exchange are the vital requirements of the respiratory system.
SMOKING
can have serious adverse effects on this process.
Smoke from cigarettes damages the alveoli, making them less stretchy, causing breakages in the thin walls which then in turn leads to larger less efficient air sacs.
This causes a reduction in oxygen
uptake
(not intake)

by the red blood cells - this is also because they instead carry carbon monoxide from the cigarettes in preference to the oxygen.
The effects of smoking on the alveoli and gaseous exchange
(i) During a match a player is likely to build up an oxygen debt. What is an oxygen debt?
(1)
(ii) If a player has built up an oxygen debt will they have been working anaerobically or aerobically?
(1)
(iii) What by-product is associated with an oxygen debt?
(1)
Now watch again and answer the following questions:
1. What do you know about the respiratory system and what it does?
2. Why do you think athletes in events such as the 400m are gasping for breath when they finish?
3. Do all athletes breathe as heavy after an event or training session?
4. Have you ever felt breathless after exercise? Why? What were you doing?
Make notes on the main functions of the respiratory from the following video clip e.g. whats it made up off, what jobs does it do? etc.
Edexcel key terms
Oxygen debt:
The amount of oxygen consumed during recovery above that which
would have ordinarily been consumed in the same time at rest (this
results in a shortfall in the oxygen available).
Tidal volume and vital capacity:
These two measurements help to estimate the efficiency of the respiratory system. It is important to be able to define tidal volume and vital capacity.
Tidal volume:
is the amount of air inspired and expired with each normal breath at rest or during exercise
Vital capacity:
is the greatest amount of air that can be made to pass into and out of the lungs by the most forceful inspiration and expiration. Normally around 4-5 litres.
To summarise, the respiratory system has two main functions:
1. To bring oxygen into the body
2. to take carbon dioxide out of the body

(Discuss process a little more)
Oxygen Debt occurs if exercise becomes anaerobic
No matter how fast the heart is beating it cannot provide the working muscles with enough oxygen, if not enough oxygen is reaching the lungs, therefore the body increases this oxygen uptake by taking faster and bigger breaths. The efficiency of breathing depends on how much oxygen can be removed from the air.
increased strength of intercostal muscles
increased strength of the diaphragm
increased lung volume
(due to increased tidal volume and vital capacity)
The
benefits
of these
adaptations
are:
1. Your respiratory system is stronger
2. You can take in more air and extract oxygen more effectively
3. Therefore you can provide more oxygen to the working muscles
Answers: (i) A lack of oxygen, extra amount of oxygen required after anaerobic exercise compared with whats needed when at rest.
(ii) Anaerobically
(iii) Lactic Acid
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RW7BTHm5O58
1.2.3 The respiratory system
GCSE PE
Answer the following questions whilst watching the video:
1. What do you know about the respiratory system and what it does?
2. Why do you think athletes in events such as the 400m are gasping for breath when they finish?
3. Do all athletes breathe as heavy after an event or training session?
4. Have you ever felt breathless after exercise? Why? What were you doing?
Individually
Make notes on the main functions of the respiratory system from the following video clip e.g. what's it made up of, what jobs does it do?
The respiratory system is everything we use to breath.


The respiratory system has two main functions:
1. To bring oxygen into the body
2. to take carbon dioxide out of the body
Tidal volume and vital capacity:
These two measurements help to estimate the efficiency of the respiratory system. It is important to be able to define tidal volume and vital capacity.
Tidal volume:
is the amount of air inspired and expired with each normal breath at rest or during exercise
Vital capacity:
is the greatest amount of air that can be made to pass into and out of the lungs by the most forceful inspiration and expiration. Normally around 4-5 litres.
Immediate and short term effects of exercise on the respiratory system

Learning objectives
1) Recognise what the respiratory system is
2) Explore the main functions of the respiratory system
3) Examine how gaseous exchange occurs

Table task
Can you put the cards in the correct order? Think about the pathway that the air travels
So what is the respiratory system?
The Trachea is split up into two bronchus which leads into both our lungs.

The bronchus is divided into two (bronchi) which are then divided into bronchioles.

The air travels along these tubes and finally ends up in the air sacs (alveoli).

The air sacs are surrounded by a network of capillaries and as the blood flows through these capillaries, the oxygen in the air sacs (alveoli) diffuse into the blood, thus reoxygenating them.

In the cells, the oxygen combines with glycogen to release energy for vital activities of our body.



The lungs
Use your cards to now help you label the diagram
As we breathe in, the diaphragm contracts and depresses so that a lot of air enters and fills up the lungs.

The ribs are therefore raised.

When we breathe out, the ribs return to their original position and the diaphragm relaxes and arches upwards.

The air is forced out of the lungs and returns the same way it came.


The Diaphragm
How do we breathe?
Inspiration - Breathe in

When you inhale:

The intercostal muscles contract, expanding the ribcage.
The diaphragm contracts, pulling downwards to increase the volume of the chest.
Pressure inside the chest is lowered and air is sucked into the lungs.



Expiration - Breathe out

When you exhale:

The intercostal muscles relax, the ribcage drops inwards and downwards
The diaphragm relaxes, moving back upwards, decreasing the volume of the chest.
Pressure inside the chest increases and air is forced out.

Gas exchange
Gas is exchanged from the air into the blood stream in the alveoli (tiny air sacs). Waste carbon dioxide is transferred from the blood back into the air also.
Exam style questioning
1.2.3 A Healthy Active Lifestyle and your respiratory system
What are the two main functions of the respiratory system?
1) to bring oxygen to the body
2) to take carbon dioxide out of the body
(ALSO KNOW AS GASEOUS EXCHANGE)
GASEOUS EXCHANGE
1) Air passes down the trachea and bronchi into the lungs
2) It travels into the bronchioles into the alveoli
3) In the alveoli oxygen diffuses into the blood
4) At the same time carbon dioxide is released into the alveoli where it is exhaled
inhale (air into the lungs)
exhale (air out of the lungs)
Oxygen
Nitrogen
Carbon dioxide
Water vapour
Oxygen
Nitrogen
Carbon dioxide
Water vapour
20.95%
79%
0.04%
0.01%
16%
79%
4%
1%
Key terms!
Oxygen debt
Tidal volume
Vital capacity
the extra oxygen consumed during recovery from a period of strenuous exercise (compared with at rest)
the amount of air inspired and expired with each normal breath at rest or during exercise
the greatest amount of air then can be made to pass into and out of the lungs by forceful inspiration and expiration. (4-5 litres)
The body needs less oxygen at rest as muscles are not moving
An average person breathes about 21 times a minutes during rest
More air is taken in with each breath during exercise as the muscles require more oxygen
regular exercise increases lung capacity and enables more oxygen to be taken in with each breath.
Immediate and long-term effects
short or long term effects?
Oxygen debt
Increased oxygen delivery
More alveoli
Breathing quickens and deepens
Increased vital capacity
Increased number of capillaries
Carbon dioxide is removed more efficiently
What is respiration?
1.2.3 The respiratory system
When exercising very hard, the heart cannot get enough oxygen to the muscles. Respiration then becomes anaerobic.

Glucose = energy + lactic acid


AEROBIC
ANAEROBIC
respiration is the release of energy from glucose in the muscles
When the body is at rest this is aerobic respiration. As you exercise you breathe harder and deeper and the heart beats faster to get oxygen to the muscles.

Glucose +
oxygen
= energy + water + carbon dioxide

Smoking
Short term effects

You need to know the short term effects exercising has on your respiratory system.

As you exercise your body needs more oxygen. To do this your body changes;

1) You breath more quickly
2) You also breathe more deeply (take in larger volumes of air each breath)
3) If you are doing
anaerobic
activity then lactic acid will begin to build up in your muscles
4) When you stop exercising
anaerobically
your body will continue to breath heavily to get rid of the lactic acid by repaying the '
oxygen debt
'.
Long term effects

Exercising regularly has long term benefits on your respiratory system.

1) The muscles around your chest cavity get stronger - so they can make your chest cavity larger

2) With a larger chest cavity you can breathe in more air in one breath (increase vital capacity)

3) Your lungs get more efficient at exchanging gas into and out of the blood stream.

The
larger
your lung capacity,
the more oxygen
you can get into your lungs and enter your blood stream per breath.

This means you have a
better
oxygen supply to the body which means you should be able to exercise for
longer
.
(WITH OXYGEN)
(WITHOUT OXYGEN)


Smoking can lead to lots of different
lung diseases
like

cancer
,
bronchitis
and
emphysema
.

Cigarette smoke contains
tar
that clogs up the
alveoli
and makes it
harder for gas exchange
to take place.

Eventually the
alveoli
will
stop working
.

Even if the tar is removed and the alveoli repair they will
never be as efficient
as they were.

Cigarette smoke also contains
nicotine.

Nicotine causes the
blood vessels
in the lungs to
tighten
which
slows the blood flow
in the lungs.

This makes the
gas exchange process less efficient.
Smoking has a really bad effect on your respiratory system.

WHY?
Full transcript