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Experiment # 9 : Factors Affecting Solubility

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Kristine Angeles

on 15 March 2015

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Transcript of Experiment # 9 : Factors Affecting Solubility

Experiment # 9 : Factors Affecting Solubility

What is Solubility?
Solubility is defined as the maximum amount of solute that can be dissolved in a given amount of solvent at a particular temperature. It is a quantitative value. Qualitatively , when a solid issolves in a liquid solvent , it is termed as soluble ; otherwise it is called insoluble. Similarly , when a liquid mixes with another liquid , it is termed as miscible ; otherwise it is called immiscible.

The solubility of a solid solute in a liquid solvent is most affected by the temperature and the polarity of both solute and solvent.

Polar solvents dissolve polar solutes to produce solutions , while non-polar solvents dissolve non-polar solutes. The rule of thumb is " Like dissolves like". A substance tends to dissolve in a solvent that is chemically related in composition to the substance.
Objectives
Methodology
A. Effects of Temperature on Solubility of Potassium Chloride in Water

1. Measure 20 ml of water and put it into a 250 ml beaker.
2. Add 20 g of potassium chloride into the beaker , and stir occasionally.
3. Incubate the mixture in a cold water bath maintained at around 15 degrees celsius.
4. After 10 minutes , allow the solids to settle at the bottom.
5. Measure 10 ml of the supernatant liquid using a graduated cylinder into a preweighed 250 ml beaker.
6. Evaporate the liquid in the beaker over a low flame.
7. When all the liquid is gone , cool the beaker , and weigh the beaker and the residue.
8. Do steps 1 to 7 at 30 degrees celsius and 80 degrees celsius.
Experimental Procedure
Reagents:
Potassium chloride Distilled water
Ammonium acetate Coconut oil
Hexane Sodium chloride
Potassium nitrate Ethanol

Materials:
250 mL beaker Bunsen burner
Tripod Analytical balance
10 mL graduated cylinder Thermometer
Wire gauze Spatula
Graphic Report for Experiment
Chem110L - Engr. Imelda Curioso-Galera
BGM 11 - GROUP 1

Members :
ALMERA , KARA GALE
ANGELES , KRISTINE JOY
ARAÑEZ , MELISE SOPHIA
ABOBO , WILF JAN
1. To demonstrate how temperature affects solubility.


2. To illustrate how the polarity of solute and solvent affects solubility.


Methodology
B. Effect of the Polarity of the Solute and the Solvent

1. Determine the solubility of solid solutes by getting a small amount (0.3g) and adding them to 2 ml of the solvent in a test tube.
2. Mix the chemicals together.
3. If the solid dissolves , write in the table of the word "soluble" ; otherwise , write the word "insoluble".
4. For liquid solutes , mix 3 drops of liquid with 2ml of the solvent. If the liquid solute mixes with the solvent , write in the table the word " miscible" ; otherwise , write the word "immiscible".
Data and Results
Effect of Temperature on Solubility
(Solubility of Potassium Chloride in Water) 15deg. 30deg. 80deg.

Mass of the beaker 109 g 109 g 109g
Mass of the beaker + residue 118.8g 115.2g
Mass of residue 9.8 g 6.2 g
Volume of solution 25 mL 14 mL
Solubility in g/ml 0.392g/mL 0.443g/mL
Solubility in mol/l 5.26 mol / L 5.94 mol / L


Data and Results
Effect of Polarity of Solute and Solvent

Sample Water Ethanol Hexane

Potassium nitrate soluble insoluble insoluble
Sodium chloride soluble insoluble insoluble
Ammonium acetate soluble insoluble insoluble
Coconut oil immiscible miscible miscible
Toluene miscible miscible miscible
Aspirin soluble insoluble insoluble
Data and Results
1. Why does the solubility of solids increase with an increase in temperature?

- Because the solid state of solids melt when temperature is increased.


2. By looking at the structure of the substance , how would you predict if it is
polar or non-polar?

- A molecule has polar bonds if there is significant difference in electronegativity between the two elements. If the electronegativities of both elements are very similar or the same, the bonds are non-polar.

3. What is the molecular basis of the general rule of solubility which is "Like dissolves like"?

- The molecular basis of the general rule in solubility which is "Like dissolves like" is that a polar solute is dissolved by a polar solvent, a non-polar solute is dissolved by a non polar solvent , and vice versa.




References
Samonte , J.L. , and Figueroa , L.V. General Chemistry : Laboratory Manual . Quezon City . 2014 . C & E Publishing Inc.
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