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Chemistry behind Glue and Adhesives

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by

Fernando Lugo

on 12 May 2014

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Transcript of Chemistry behind Glue and Adhesives

Differences between Glues
When using white glue, the substance normally takes a decent amount of time to dry, whilst super glue hardens nearly instantly.
Mechanical Bonding
Mechanical bonding
is the process in which molecules flow into hidden creases and imperfections of surfaces and bonds.
Epoxy vs. Resin
What is Glue made of?
Glue is made mainly of
Collagen
, a key protein in connective tissues, as well as hides and bones. In short, animals.
How does it work?
Got Glue?
What really goes on when you use glue? What is Glue on the chemical level?
Some might use glue and
adhesive
interchangeably, but they aren't the same.
The Chemistry behind Glue and Adhesives
The history of Adhesives
Adhesives were discovered by ancient tribes who found they could process animal hides and bone to produce collagen.
Super Glue
Super Glue is just like normal glue, but it bonds nearly instantaneously and is much stronger.
Epoxy is highly durable, heat resistant, and water resistant as well as being solvent free. It is considered the strongest of all adhesives.
The Chemical formula is C2H5NOC5H9NOC5H10NO2
Later, it was discovered that collagen was very useful in holding things together due to it's stickiness.
Glue or Milk?
Glue and Adhesives use the attractive forces between the molecules of the surface and the agent.
Adhesion occurs on a molecular level, utilizing
Van der Waals
forces, ionic, covalent, and metallic bonding.
Super glue is made of
Cyanoacrylate
, an acrylic resin. The formula is C5H5NO2.
Also, super glue is waterproof whereas white glue is not.
Van Der Waals Forces
Van der Waals forces are the attractive forces between polarized atoms. The positive and negative ends attract each other and they bond.
The force was discovered by the name of Johannes Diderik van der Waals.
Van der Waals contacts
In order for Van der Waals to work, the glue must only be separated from the surfaces of the objects it's binding by a few
angstroms
.
In order for the bond to occur, the adhesive must wet the surface it's bonding to and spreak to maintain maximum contact area.
The adhesive may be subject to cohesive failures if it isn't spread thinly enough.
As it hardens, the two materials are locked together.
Mechanical bonding is effective at ranges which Van der Waals is ineffective
Resin is weaker, takes time to harden, and drys by heat. It still provides excellent bonding, and isn't waterproof. It is water resistant however.
Gorilla Glue vs....
Gorilla glue is a
polyurethane
glue formed from Diphenylmethane diisocyanate.
Hot Melt Glue
Hot Melt glue is the glue sticks that are inserted into glue guns and melted to form a tacky substance
It's formula is C15H10N2O2.
The Finishing Touch
Gorilla Glue is mainly used in wood work, but is also used in stone, metal, ceramics, foam, and glass.
Hot Melt glue is also a Polyurethane, but solidifies into a strong bond much faster than Gorilla glue.
Adhesives and glues are not the same, but they serve the same purpose of holding things together.
Not all glues can be used effectively for all materials, so choose the glue best suited for the job.
Full transcript