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History of Life and Evolution Pt. 1

This will give a good summary of what Ch. 12 covers. Remember to take the quiz at the end.
by

Clarissa Caro

on 19 March 2014

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Transcript of History of Life and Evolution Pt. 1

Evolution of Humans
Endosymbiosis
The “Primordial Soup” Model
Extinctions influenced the evolution of the species existing today.
Mass Extinctions
A Possible Role as Catalysts
Scientists think that self-replicating RNA “enzyme-like” molecules formed before DNA or proteins formed. This would allow cells to transmit information from generation to generation.

Microspheres and Coacervates

Scientists think that the first cells may have developed from microspheres (amino acid and lipid droplets) or coacervate drops (amino acid, lipid, and sugar droplets). These cells were believed to contain RNA and transmit characteristics from one generation to the next.
How Did Cells Begin?
How did life start?
You should understand how simple organic molecules form and how they can organize into more complex molecules.
How did all this diversity come to exist?
You should understand that organisms evolve over time through natural selection
You should be able to explain evolution through various forms of evidence such as the fossil record, changes in DNA, and adaptation in nature.
“Things You Should Know”
Read
Chapter 12, 13, & 41
in your textbook. http://my.hrw.com/
Complete ALL pages in your PAK!! You should be working on your vocabulary/objectives first!!!
All labs will be completed at your table or at home. ASK QUESTIONS!!
Task List
Early Hominids walked upright before their brains became significantly larger.
The early hominids best represented by fossil finds belong to the group known as
australopithecines
.
In the past few years, scientists have discovered fossils of hominids that lived at the same time or earlier than Australopithecus such as Sahelanthropus.
Evolution of Hominids
Evolution of Primates
Lerman suggest that the key processes that formed the chemical needed for life took place in bubbles on the ocean’s surface.
Bubble Model
Follow the link below to see how to solve the half-life problems found in your PAK.

Solving Half-Life Problems Link:
http://www.educreations.com/lesson/view/half-life-problem/5379103/?s=o3CYzr&ref=appemail
Solving Half Life Problems
Plants and fungi formed mycorrhizae, symbiotic associations of plants and fungi. Such paired organisms allowed for diverse plant life to arise.
Life invaded land
The Earth formed about 4.5 billion years ago according to evidence obtained by radiometric dating.
The Age of the Earth
Take the associated quiz for this Powerpoint
Homo habilis
had a brain much larger than that of
australopithecines
and used tools.
Homo erectus
evolved in Africa about 1.5 million years ago and may have been the direct ancestor of
Homo sapiens
Homo sapiens
probably evolved in Africa and migrated to the rest of the world
Members of the species
Homo sapiens
first appeared in Europe about 130,000 years ago.
About 34,000 years ago, the European
Neanderthals
were abruptly replaced by
Homo sapiens
of modern appearance
The Genus Homo
NASA
Following their evolution
humans have caused
huge species loss, and
this has accelerated in
since the 19th century

Are we now in the midst
of a sixth mass extinction?
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geologic_time_scale
Today
Boom &Bust? : Sixth Extinction
Around 35 mya, climate became cooler and drier and grasslands
and grazing mammals became widespread
i.pbase.com/o4/15/700115/1/66410718.sOPB0thD.serengeti2.jpg
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geologic_time_scale
35 million years ago
Boom Bust? :
Grass and Grazers
An ammonite
www.fossilmuseum.net

PAK 7 Seminar-Ch. 12
Biology & Pre AP Biology

History of Life and Evolution
© Nicolle Rager Fuller, National Science Foundation
Yanoconodon
Mammals evolved about the
same time as the dinosaurs,
220 mya, but lived in their
shadow for a 150 million years

Many were small, nocturnal
insect-eating animals. The need
to be active at night may be why
mammals are warm-blooded
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geologic_time_scale
220 million years ago
Boom & Bust? :
Mammals
About 220 mya, shortly after the extinction, dinosaurs appeared.
These reptiles dominated the land for the next 150 myrs!
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geologic_time_scale
220-65 million years ago
Boom & Bust? :
Dinosaurs
Fossil poo contains plants
Fossil millipedes
Analysis of fossil
poo shows that
animals started
to eat plants,
420 mya
Millipedes and their poo in the Ludlow Bone Bed of Shropshire
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geologic_time_scale
420 million years ago
Onto Land :
A taste for Plants

© Jason Dunlop
www.abdn.ac.uk/rhynie.htm
Around 400 mya, a whole land ecosystem became a time capsule
at Rhynie in Scotland when a volcanic hot spring erupted.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geologic_time_scale
400 million years ago
Onto Land :
Time Capsule

Around 500 mya, tracks in
ancient coastal dunes
show that some marine
animals started to make
temporary visits to the
sea shore to feed or mate
Eurypterid
© Simon Braddy
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geologic_time_scale
500 million years ago
Onto Land :
Making tracks

© Bruce Runnegar with permission
Grypania
After another half billion years many-celled life appeared

Grypania was a coiled tube, 2 mm wide and up to 5 cm long
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geologic_time_scale
1400 million years ago
In the Sea :
Multicellular life
Acritarch
Two billion years later complex
eukaryote cells appeared.

These had compartments with
special functions such as energy
factories called mitochondria.

Eukaryote cells need oxygen -
this explains their late evolution
www.cushmanfoundation.org/resources/images/slide16.gif
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geologic_time_scale
1900 million years ago
In the Sea :
Complex cells
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/56/Hylonomus_BW.jpg
Lay eggs on land
Hylonomus lyelli
Bones found in Canada show that reptile evolved, 315 mya
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geologic_time_scale
315 million years ago
Onto Land :
Reptiles

Also around 380 mya
certain fish evolved limbs
and lungs for life on land

The first land-dwelling
amphibians retained
many fishy characteristics
Panderichthys
Ichthyostega
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Ichthyostega_BW.jpg
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Panderichthys_BW.jpg
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geologic_time_scale
380-365 million years ago
Onto Land :
Amphibians

A short time later, 1200 mya, algae evolved sexual reproduction
evolution.berkeley.edu/evolibrary/images/bangiomorpha1.jpg
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Sexual_cycle.svg
Red algae
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geologic_time_scale
1200 million years ago
In the Sea :
Biology’s Big Bang!

Microraptor
is a small
feathered
dinosaur
upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/d6/SArchaeopteryxBerlin2.jpg
www.dinohunters.com/History/Microraptor.htm
Archaeopteryx
is one of the
earliest known
birds
About 155 mya, birds evolved from dinosaurs. The similarity
between birds and dinosaurs has been recognized for 160 years.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geologic_time_scale
155 million years ago
Boom & Bust? :
Birds
% species extinct
Life nearly died in a massive wave of extinction around 251 mya in
the largest of the so-called “Big Five” mass extinctions
upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/01/Pahoeoe_fountain_original.jpg
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geologic_time_scale
251.4 million years ago
Boom & Bust? : The Great Dying
upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/41/Liverwort.jpg
Ancient worm burrows
Liverworts similar to the first plants
Worms and primitive plants started to colonize the land, 460 mya
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geologic_time_scale
460 million years ago
Onto Land :
Permanent residents

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Anabaena_sperica.jpg
Early photosynthetic
bacteria produced
oxygen and released
it as a waste product.

This added oxygen
to the atmosphere
for the first time.
Photosynthetic
bacteria
Iron oxide rocks
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geologic_time_scale
http://www.globalchange.umich.edu/globalchange1/current/lectures/first_billion_years/bif.gif
3800-3500 million years ago
In the Sea :
Oxygen
© Howard Falcon-Lang
Fossil plant
www.mnh.si.edu/highlight/riola/images/calhoun.jpg
Coal Forests
Around 300 mya,
coal seams in North
America and Europe
show that the first
tropical rainforests
had evolved.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geologic_time_scale
320-290 million years ago
Onto Land :
First Rainforests

Tree trunks
Large leaves
Seeds
Forests were born 380 mya as plants grew trunks, leaves and
seeds for the first time
www.seedbiology.de/evolution.asp
www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/seedplants/progymnosperms.html
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geologic_time_scale
380-370 million years ago
Onto Land :
First Forests

Burgess Shale fossils
palaeo.gly.bris.ac.uk/palaeofiles/lagerstatten/Burgess/Anomalocarishunts.jpg
www.newarkcampus.org/professional/osu/faculty/jstjohn/Cool Fossils/Anomalocaris-canadensis.jpg
Claw of Anomalocaris
Around 542 mya, several fossil sites show that the diversity of
animal life on Earth dramatically exploded over a short time.
Beginnings :
Diversity explodes

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geologic_time_scale
542-515 million years ago
Life evolved
early in
Earth History.

The first living
things were
simple bacteria

Prokaryotes are the
oldest organisms.
Fossil bacteria?
Modern bacterial mounds
www.fas.org/irp/imint/docs/rst/Sect20/A12.html
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geologic_time_scale
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Stromatolites_in_Sharkbay.jpg
3800-3500 million years ago
In the Sea:
First living things
Around 2 mya, humans evolved. They pioneered the use of fire
and tools to control their world, and developed society and culture
Neanderthal
Cave art
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Neanderthal_2D.jpg
© Chris Stringer
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Lascaux2.jpg
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geologic_time_scale
2 million years ago
Boom & Bust? :
Humans
Around 65 mya, various lines of geological evidence suggest that
the Earth was hit by a 10 km meteorite, wiping out the dinosaurs
miac.uqac.ca/MIAC/qtz-chic.jpg
NASA
The Crater of Doom
Shocked quartz
NASA
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geologic_time_scale
65 million years ago
Boom & Bust? :
Deep Impact
Watch the video below that explains half-lives
http://my.hrw.com/sh/hxx/0030738024/student/ch12/sec01/qc02/hxx12_01_q02fs.htm
Because living things contain carbon (organic), many times C-14 is used to measure half-life of an organism.
Miller and Urey’s “primordial soup” model proposes that important organic molecules arose in the early earth’s oceans due to chemical reactions of atmospheric gases and water activated by heat sources.
Ammonia and methane did not exist on the early earth due to lack of ozone layer
The mixture of gases used in Miller’s “primordial soup” experiments could not have existed on early earth.
Watch the link to see the full explanation of this experiment http://my.hrw.com/sh/hxx/0030738024/student/ch12/sec01/qc03/hxx12_01_q03fs.htm
Modern bacterial mounds
Fossil bacteria?
Iron oxide rocks
Photosynthetic
bacteria
Acritarch
Prokaryotes likely gave rise to eukaryotes through the process of endosymbiosis in which larger prokaryotic cells incorporate smaller prokaryotic cells.

The theory of endosymbiosis proposes that mitochondria are the descendants of symbiotic, aerobic eubacteria and chloroplasts are the descendants of symbiotic, photosynthetic eubacteria.
Follow the link below to view endosymbiosis in action: http://my.hrw.com/sh/hxx/0030738024/student/ch12/sec02/qc03/hxx12_02_q03fs.htm
Grypania
Red algae
Burgess Shale fossils
Claw of Anomalocaris
Eurypterid
Ancient worm burrows
Liverworts similar
to the first plants
Fossil millipedes
Fossil poo contains plants
Tree trunks
Large leaves
Seeds
Panderichthys
Ichthyostega
Hylonomus lyelli
Lay eggs on land
Fossil plant
Coal Forests
Extinction
intensity
Explanation of extinctions: http://my.hrw.com/sh/hxx/0030738024/student/ch12/sec02/qc05/hxx12_02_q05fs.htm
Yanoconodon
The Crater of Doom
Shocked quartz
Neanderthal
Cave art
50-60 mya /
30 mya
Primates
have grasping hands and binocular vision.
Prosimians
most closely resemble early primates.
Monkeys
were among the first primates to have opposable thumbs.
Apes
which share a common ancestor with monkeys, first appeared about 30 million years ago. DNA evidence indicates that humans are more closely related to chimpanzees than to any other primate species
Primate video:
http://my.hrw.com/sh/hxx/0030738024/student/ch32/sec03/qc04/hxx32_03_q04fs.htm
Watch the videos below to help with your Chimps lab (PRE AP ONLY)

Comparing Movement: http://my.hrw.com/sh/hxx/0030738024/student/ch32/sec03/qc03/hxx32_03_q03fs.htm

Origins of Human Ancestry:
http://my.hrw.com/sh/hxx/0030738024/student/ch32/sec03/qc01/hxx32_03_q01fs.htm
Take the associated quiz for
this presentation on Schoology
Full transcript