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The Heart

Focuses on the blood flow, electrical pathway and potential problems of the heart.
by

Jessica Culton

on 12 May 2010

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Transcript of The Heart

Blood Flow Through the Heart Blood flow begins when unoxygenated blood flows into the heart from the inferior and superior vena cava. Unoxygenated blood then flows into the right atrium Next, blood flows through the tricuspid valve and into the right ventricle. The blood then leaves the heart via the Pulmonary valve where it flows into the pulmonary artery and to the lungs for oxygenation. Oxygenated blood returns to the heart via the Pulmonary Vein The blood then flows into the left atrium. The oxygenated blood then flows through the mitral (or bicuspid) valve and into the left ventricle. The oxygenated blood then goes through the aortic valve and is delivered to the cells throughout the body. If you forget some valves, remember, the Right side has a RAT and the left side has a LAMB:
RA- Right Atrium
T- Tricuspid Valve

LA- Left Atrium
MB- Mitral (bicuspid) Valve The electrical signal begins when the SA (sinoatrial) node produces an electrical signal. This is why the SA node is called the "pacemaker" of the heart. This is the P-wave on an EKG. The electrical signal then travels through the internodal pathways of the atria, which causes them to contract. The signal then arrives at the AV (atrioventricular) node. This signal has a short pause while the ventricles fill up with blood. This equals the PR interval. The signal then goes to the bundle of His and then through the left and right bundle braches. The signal lastly goes through the Purkinje fibers where it is delivered to the intercallated discs of the heart. This process is the QRS complex. The ventricles then repolarize, which is the equivilent of the T-wave. When Good Hearts go Bad This is an EKG normal sinus rythm or NSR. This is what the electrical readout of the heart's conduction systems should look like. This has a heart rate of 60-100 beats per minute (bpm). This is an EKG of sinus bradycardia, or a slow heart rate (HR). This HR is under 60 bpm and appears due to the laziness of the SA node. It does not fire as often as it should with this arrythmia. This is an EKG of Supraventricular Tachycardia. This has a HR of over 160 bpm. Note how often the QRS wave appear when compared to the NSR EKG. This rhythm originates above the ventricles and often does not provide adequate bloodflow to the patients body. This is a 12-lead EKG, which shows more views than the previous EKG's which were just one lead (lead 2). All leads here are labeled. Note the ST elevation (it looks like a tombstone) after the QRS wave. This elevation is present in leads II, III and avF, and indicates an inferior ST-elevation myocardial infarction (aka STEMI aka heart attack!) There are also reciprocal changes in this 12-lead. Note leads V1, V2, and aVL have ST depression. This is a normal heart beat shown as an electrical signal via an electriocardiogram, known as an ECG or EKG. This is how medical professionals see what is going on with your heart without performing surgery! Note the P-wave, the QRS complex, and the T-wave. The ST segment is important in diagnosing heart attacks. Electrical Conductivity of the Heart
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