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Imperialism Case Study: Nigeria
Transcript of Imperialism Case Study: Nigeria
Case Study: Nigeria
Methods of Management
1) Indirect Control
2) Direct Control
The Start of Imperialism
-Europeans argued among themselves for the lands of Africa in the Berlin Conference of 1884-85 and the Boer War
- Europeans did not pay attention to political divisions or ethnic and language groupings in Africa
-The ability to control African land, people and resources
A New Period of Imperialism
-Early Period: imperial powers did not go deep into conquered areas of Asia and Africa
-Europeans demanded more influence over economics, politics and social lives
-Wanted to shape land to benefit economy
-Wanted spread of European customs
Forms of Control
-Four forms of colonial control:
1) Colony-country or territory governed internally by foreign powers
2) Protectorate- country or territory with own internal gov. under control of an outside power
3) Sphere of Influence- area that outside power has exclusive investment or trading privileges
4) Economic Imperialism- independent LDC controlled by private businesses
-relied on existing political rule
-local rulers accepted British authority to rule
-handled much of the daily management of colonies
-colonies had legislative councils
-preferred by French and other European countries
-Paternalism: governing in a parental way by providing for needs but not giving rights
-did not train local leaders, they brought bureaucrats
-Assimilation:In time, locals would adopt French culture
-What is Imperialism?
-What are the four forms of control and which do you think is the most effective?
-What are some countries that used direct control? Indirect control?
-Britain gained control of southern Nigeria through diplomacy and military force
-some local rulers accepted British terms, but not all
- Britain gained control of northern Nigeria by the Royal Niger Company
-1914: British claimed Nigeria as a colony
Managing the Colony
-Three largest groups:
1) Hausa-Fulani in the north
2)Yoruba in the southwest
3)Igbo in the southeast
-Differed in language, culture, and religion
-How did Britain gain control of southern Nigeria?
-What were the three largest ethnic groups and in what ways did they differ?
-Why did the British turn to indirect rule of land?
-Africans across Africa resisted being colonized
-All attempts failed except for Ethiopia
-Resistance included active military resistance and religious movements
-Active military resistance:
Example) Algeria against French rule
Example) Samori Toure in West Africa against the French
Example) Africans in German East Africa
Africans in German East Africa
-1905: belief that maji-maji sprinkled on bodies would turn bullets into water
-Fighters believed the war was ordained by God and that ancestors would return to life to assist them
-75,000 resisters died
-Result:Germans made government reforms to make colonialism acceptable to Africans
Ethiopia: A Successful Resistance
- Only African nation to successfully resist Europeans
-due to Menelik II
-Ethiopian emperor in 1889
-built arsenal of weapons
-signed a treaty with Italy
-Declared War in 1896
-1896-Battle of Adowa
-What two types of resistance attempts were there?
-Who was Menelik II?
-Why did he declare war against Italy?
-What was the famous battle?
-Africans lost control of land and independence
- many fatalities
-Breakdown of traditional African culture
-division of the African continent
-Colonialism reduced local warfare
-provided hospitals and schools
Beyond the Textbook: Samori Toure
-Born in 1830 in the Milo River Valley
-built the Mandinka empire
- resisted French invasion and created second empire
-eventually lost to the French due to famine
Modern Day Connection: ISIS