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Historical Foundations of Curriculum

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Scheree Martin

on 19 September 2013

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Transcript of Historical Foundations of Curriculum

Historical Foundations of Curriculum
Mid to Late 20th Century
The Colonial Period: 1642 – 1776
The historical foundation of curriculum was based on colonial Massachusetts. The first New England schools were tied to the Puritan church. The schools primary purpose was to teach children to read the Scriptures and notices of civil affairs. Reading was the most important subject followed by writing and spelling.
Northern Colonies

Schools came from 2 different sources
“1642 legislation required parents and guardians to ensure that child could read and understand the principles of religion and the laws of the Commonwealth”

“Old Deluder Satan Act of 1647, which required every town of 50 or more families to appoint a reading and writing teacher”
Middle Colonies
•No language or religion in common

Parochial and independent schools related to different ethnic and religious groups were established
Southern Colonies
•Educational decisions were left to the family
•Town Schools – located in New England Colonies; locally controlled public elementary school
•Parochial and Private Schools – located in middle colonies; missionary societies and various religious and ethnic groups established elementary schools
•Latin Grammar Schools – secondary level, upper-class boys; first established in Boston 1635 as preparation for college
•Academies – established in 1751, second American institution to provide education; offered practical curriculum
•Colleges – students who graduated from Latin grammar schools went to Harvard or Yale; college was based on the Puritan view
•Hornbook – children learned the alphabet, Lord’s prayer, and some syllables, words and sentences
•Primer – first American basal reader
•Westminster Catechism
•Old Testament

Jefferson: Education for Citizenship
1743 – 1826

Webster: Schoolmaster and Cultural Nationalist
McGuffey: The Readers and American Virtues
The National Period: 1776 – 1850
“Schools and the means of education shall forever by encouraged”
(Ornstein & Hunkins, 2013)
Rush: Science, Progress, & Free Education
1745 – 1813

The plan for Pennsylvania and the new nation

•Free elementary schools in every town consisting of 100 or more families

•A free academy at the county level

•Free colleges and universities at the state level for society’s future leaders

Schools would be funded by tax dollars, however once children were educated the result would be a productive, well-managed workforce and entrepreneur force would result.
Virginia’s counties were divided into wards

Each had a free elementary school that taught reading, writing, arithmetic and history
Established 20 secondary-level grammar schools
Studied Latin, Greek, English, geography, and higher mathematics
Established scholarships – 10 students with highest achievement would attend William and Mary College

Webster was known as “schoolmaster of the Republic”
Urged Americans to “unshackle [their] minds and act like independent beings.”
Created “American English” and believed that a U.S. language would …
•Eliminate the remains of European usage
•Create a uniform U.S. speech free of localism and provincialism
•Promote U.S. cultural nationalism
Created The American Dictionary

During his era, he created the most popular textbooks called Readers
Estimated 120 million copies were sold between 1836 and 1920
Patriotism, heroism, hard work, diligence, and virtuous living were instilled in the Readers
Tone was moralistic, religious, capitalistic, and nationalistic
Provided the first graded Readers and paved a way for the grading system. The grading system began in 1840.
Many of his Pictoral Primer and Readers are still used today in some rural, conservative, and/or fundamental schools.

Nineteenth Century European Educators
Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi “Father of Modern Education”
Friedrich Froebel
•Swiss educational reformer

•laid the foundation of modern elementary education.

•based on the importance of a pedagogical method corresponding to the natural order of individual development and concrete experiences.

•individuality of each child is paramount; it is something that has to be cultivated actively through education.

•opposed the prevailing system of memorization learning and strict discipline and sought to replace it with a system based on an understanding of the child's world.

•influenced the development of teacher-training methods
•German educator
•created the earliest kindergarten, which literally means "child's garden" in German
•child-centered curriculum featured songs, stories, games, gifts, and occupations focusing on students interests to develop children's social and physical skills

Johann Herbart
•German philosopher
•emphasized moral education and designed a highly structured teaching technique
•included history, geography, and literature in the school curriculum as well as reading, writing, and arithmetic.

Promoted a five-step teaching method:
(1) prepare the pupils to be ready for the new lesson
(2) present the new lesson
(3) associate the new lesson with ideas studied earlier
(4) use examples to illustrate the lesson's major points
(5) test pupils to ensure they had learned the new lesson.

Herbert Spencer
•British sociologist
•influenced education with social theories based on the theory of evolution developed by British naturalist Charles Darwin
•applied the theory of evolution to society, politics, the economy, and education.
•believed that people in industrialized society needed scientific rather than classical education, emphasizing education in practical skills

•Advocated a curriculum featuring lessons in five basic human activities:
(1) those needed for self-preservation such as health, diet, and exercise;
(2) those needed to perform one's occupation so that a person can earn a living, including the basic skills of reading, writing, computation, and knowledge of the sciences;
(3) those needed for parenting, to raise children properly;
(4) those needed to participate in society and politics; and
(5) those needed for leisure and recreation
Monitorial Schools
Based on Joseph Lancaster’s model of education.
Economic and efficient.
Teachers taught the lessons to high-achieving students, called monitors, who then served as instructors to their classmates.
Highly-structured, rote learning.
Emphasis on the three R’s and citizenship
Some people found this system to be too mechanical, and its popularity diminished by 1850.

Elementary Schools
No agreement on curriculum
Reading, spelling, grammar, and arithmetic were taught in addition to morals and manners.
Over time, more subjects were added to the curriculum.
By 1900, the following subjects were taught:
Secondary Schools
High schools were established using the same concept as common schools (supported by taxpayers and controlled locally)
Over time, more children ages 14-17 began to attend school
Enrollment in secondary schools peaked between 1900 and 1970.

Began to replace Latin grammar schools in the early 1800s and extended to the 1870s when public high schools replaced academies
Designed to provide practical programs and college-preparatory courses
Academies also served as finishing schools, teacher preparation programs, and military school.

The Rise of Universal Education: 1820-1900
During this period in history, Americans felt strongly about individualism and equality of the social classes. People of all socio-economic backgrounds and geographic regions valued education. “… mass education was necessary for intelligent participation in political democracy and for economic growth of the country” (Ornstein & Hunkins, 2013, p. 64).
Common Schools
Established in Massachusetts in 1826.

Devoted to elementary education with a focus on the three R’s.

Horace Mann, Massachusetts’ first Commissioner of Education, gained community support by arguing that education: had market value, would improve the public good, would create a politically- and economically-stable country, would help assimilate ethnic and religious groups

School establishment and quality varied by state:

--Students ages 6 to 14 or 15 attended school and were taught a variety of subjects
--Schoolhouses were in disrepair
--Teacher pay was measly
Some regions, such as New England, formed school districts with elected officials
Education was valued greatly on the frontier, and common schools thrived there.
“… created the basis for tax-supported and locally controlled elementary school education” (Ornstein & Hunkins, 2013, p. 65).

High Schools
The first high school was founded in Boston in 1821

Became a major institution after the 1874 Kalamazoo ruling that stated that high schools could be established and supported by tax dollars.

From the beginning, U.S. high schools have served students of all socio-economic backgrounds and learning styles.

Offered diverse curriculum, including college preparatory and vocational programs

After 1875, there was a dramatic increase in the number of U.S. high schools, and the curriculum continued to broaden.

In the educational periods leading up to the 20th century, the traditional curriculum focused on classical studies, at the elementary and secondary levels, in an attempt to develop mental abilities. As recent as the year 1900, the majority of the children completed their formal schooling at the elementary level only. Students, who transitioned to secondary schools, concluded their formal education after graduation.
Restating the Traditional Curriculum:
Between 1893 and 1895, the National Education Association (NEA) organized 3 key committees to evaluate and update the existing curriculum.

Eliot and Harris: Two Conservative Reformers
Vocational Education

supported by the National Education Association (NEA):
Reorganization of Secondary Education
The NEA’s Commission of Reorganization published the Cardinal Principles of Secondary Education.
•Emphasized the importance of servicing the whole child
•Promoted education for all youth
•Diversified areas of study
•Introduced principles for a democratic society

In 1890:
14.5% of secondary students were preparing for college
3% of students matriculated to college
High schools focused on approximately 15% of the student population

Traditional Curriculum Questioned by Reformers
Should elementary schools offer two educational options?
One curriculum for high school bound students
One curriculum for students whose education would not surpass elementary school

How are the high schools preparing students?

•For college

•Mental discipline

•On the classics

Committee of 15
•Guided by the president of Harvard University, Charles Eliot and the U.S Commissioner of Education, William Harris
•Reduced elementary from 10 to 8 grade levels
•Stressed reading, writing and arithmetic
•Emphasized the importance of considering the needs and interests of students when planning curriculum

Committee of 10

•The most influential of the three Committees, led by Eliot

•Established curriculum hierarchy from elementary to college

•Identified the 9 academic focus areas for high school curriculum: Latin, Greek, English, additional modern language, math, science, history, social science and geography

•Identified 4 tracks: Classical, Latin Scientific, Modern Languages, and English. Two were for college bound students and the other two were for non-college bound students.

•Ignored vocational education

The Committee on College Entrance Requirements:

•Met in 1895 to emphasize the college-admission requirements

•Consisted of college and university presidents and Eliot

•Recommended high school curriculum for college preparatory

•Recommended the course credit requirements for college admissions

Charles Eliot(1835-1909):

•Argued that curriculum had to be restructured to include comprehension and problem solving

•Argued for trade and vocational schools to be separate for high school

Williams Harris (1834-1926):

•Former Commissioner of Education in St. Louis and the United States

•Resisted vocational curriculum and argued that all children should follow the same curriculum

•Argued that curriculum gave less fortunate children the same opportunities as the wealthy

The NEA:
•Advocated manual activities for elementary students
•Supported aptitude testing for children to identify interest in vocations or higher schools
•Smith-Hughes Act offered federal aid for vocational studies
•Jane Addams believed that immigrant children would be forced into these programs

Pressure for a Modern Curriculum
Abraham Flexner (1866-1959): Former teacher of the classics
•Rejected the traditional secondary curriculum and introduced a modern curriculum
•Believed that educators had to make changes consistent with society

John Dewey (1859-1952): Believed education should transition to the use of scientific methods
•Thought the use of scientific methods was the best way to gain accurate knowledge. Testing was used to support or refute procedures and results.

Charles Judd (1873-1946):
•Used statistical research to determine the significance of curriculum content
•Considered the extent to which content increased a student’s ability to promote thinking and solve problems

The Developmental Period
The Birth of the Field of Curriculum: 1918 – 1949
Franklin Bobbitt:
Behaviorism and Scientific Principles
Bobbitt’s 1918 book The Curriculum was possibly the first book devoted solely to curriculum as a science and to all its phases.
Placed emphasis on student needs and preparing students for adult life
Promoted cost effective education
He believed that curriculum should outline the knowledge important for each subject and then develop appropriate activities

Bobbit's criteria for choosing curriculum objectives that can be applied today
Eliminate objectives that are impractical or cannot be accomplished through normal living,
Emphasize objectives that are important for success and adult living,
Avoid objectives opposed by the community,
Involve the community in selecting objectives,
Differentiate between objectives for all students
sequence objectives by grade level

Behaviorism & Scientific Principles
Viewed curriculum as a series of goals that students must reach
Argued that makers must apply clear principles in order to select materials that would lead to the achievement of specific and measurable objectives.
Charters, like Bobbitt taught at the University of Chicago and together are credited as initiators of the behavioral and scientific movements in curriculum
Charters and Bobbitt together formed expectations that:
Objectives come from student needs and society
Learning experiences should always relate to objectives
Activities organized by the teacher should be integrated into the subject matter
Instructional outcomes should be regularly evaluated.

Divided his methodology into four steps:
1. Purposing 2. Planning 3. executing 4. judging
Kilpatrick’s project method, from his book Foundations of Method, was implemented mainly at the elementary level.
Advocated giving children considerable input in determining the curriculum.
Argued for integrated subject matter and a general education emphasizing values and social issues
Viewed school as a “community in which students practiced cooperation, self- government and application of intelligence " to solve problems as they may arise.”

Harold Rugg
Hollis Caswell
A. Rugg did not believe that a curriculum should be based on students’ input, needs, or interests.
B. Highly emphasized social studies as a subject area
C. Published the “Child Center School” which promoted the need for “curriculum specialists to construct a curriculum in advance.
Caswell viewed courses of study as “guides “that teachers should use in planning their daily lessons, not as plans they should follow in detail.
Presented seven important questions that should guide creating a curriculum:
1. What is a curriculum?
2. Why is there need for curriculum revision?
3. What is the function of subject matter?
4. How do we determine educational objectives?
5. How do we organize curriculum?
6. How do we select subject matter?
7. How do we measure the outcomes of instruction?

Curriculum is viewed as a science due to the child study movement, scientific research and advancements in psychology.
Ralph Tyler
Tyler wrote a book titled Basic Principles of Curriculum and Instruction which placed objectives in specific categories that included Knowledge, skills, and attitude.
Knowledge – Students must understand our world is constantly changing and students must adapt.
Skills-Students need to learn how to a. seek information from many sources and judge its validity.
Attitudes- Students need to be willing to take on difficult challenges and find a way to achieve success

Proposed that researchers and teachers collaborate in developing and testing new ideas related to curriculum and teaching.
Thought that teachers should spend half their time teaching, and the other half interpreting and modifying state goals and planning curriculum activities.
Felt schools should help individuals fulfill their potential but should also promote society’s goals.

Goodlad launched a study of 260 kindergarten and first- grade class-rooms in 100 schools in 13 states and the results included the following:
Individual and small group instruction is not a common method of instruction.
There is a high emphasis on order and structures.

Think about implementing monitorial schools in the 21st century. What are some advantages and disadvantages?
How are common schools similar to public education in America today?
Study the table on page 66 of the textbook. What areas of the curriculum expanded between 1800 and 1900?
What types of programs were offered in 19th-century academies? When you think of the word academy in today’s school setting, what comes to mind?
Review the information on page 67 of the text. How was the U.S. public school system different from Europe’s system?
Ornstein, A.C. & Hunkins, F.P. (2013).
Curriculum:Foundations, Principles, and Issues (6th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.
Clabaugh, G.K, & Rozycki, E.G.(1999).The
Foundations of Curriculum.
Garrett, A. W. (1994). What is curriculum history and
why is it important? Retrieved on September 17, 2013, from http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED383584.pdf
Chapter 3
Historical Foundations of Curriculum
What should be taught? This age old question still remains. The Greek philosopher, Aristotle once said,
“As things are, there is disagreement about the subjects. For mankind are by no means agreed about the things to be taught, whether we look to virtue or the best life.”
Chapter 3 focuses on the evolution of curriculum through these periods:



Nineteenth Century European Educators



Presentation Created by: Stacia Sinclair, Scheree Martin, Rachel Crane, Brandi Allen, and Amjad Zahra
“The field of curriculum now involves numerous political and social interpretations. It is dynamic and ever changing, incorporating knowledge from other disciplines (e.g., philosophy, psychology, sociology, political science)” (Ornstein & Hunkins, 2013, p. 86).
Throughout history, educators have searched for the answer to the question, what should we teach and how should we teach it? The history of curriculum takes into consideration societal values to be taught to the next generation through schools’ curricula. It is interesting to wonder how the curricula of the past have benefitted or harmed society. What are the long-term implications of our curriculum and instructional methods? It is critical that we have that conversation.
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