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Group Copy of EDUC 518 Concept Map Template

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Anna Roman-Gonzales

on 21 January 2017

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Transcript of Group Copy of EDUC 518 Concept Map Template

The video shows:
formative assessment
performance assessment --> direct written assessment
mastery approach--criterion-referenced grading
measurement techniquesverbal rubric (expectations)The The jodgkdpfgasdfasdf
EDUC 518 CONCEPT MAP
All about:
concept map
ELEMENTS
copy and paste as needed and take advantage of an infinite canvas!
Main Ideas:
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Questions:
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Application to video:
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Ideas for your OTVR:
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BEHAVIORISM
All about:
Main Ideas:
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Questions:
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Application to video:
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Ideas for your OTVR:
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COMPLEX COGNITIVE PROCESSES
All about:
Main Ideas:
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Questions:
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Application to video:
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Ideas for your OTVR:
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INFORMATION PROCESSING THEORY
All about:
Main Ideas:
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Questions:
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Application to video:
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Ideas for your OTVR:
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COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENTAL THEORY
All about:
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Questions:
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Simulator Observations
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CONNECTIVISM
All about:
Main Ideas:
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Questions:
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Application to video:
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CONSTRUCTIVISM
All about:
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Questions:
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SOCIAL COGNITIVE THEORY
All about:
Main Ideas:
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Questions:
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Application to video:
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Ideas for your OTVR:
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SOCIOCULTURAL THEORY
All about:
Should I create multiple learning objectives for the same activity if I have students at different levels in my class?
Answer: If students have different capabilities and are at different learning levels, multiple objectives can benefit your classroom so you can fit the needs of all of your students.
The teacher's learning objective in the video is for students to complete the test with the assistance of group members .
Ideas for your OTVR:
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LEARNING OBJECTIVES
All about:
Questions:
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Tommi Binns:
I will use step by step instruction to assess how the learner is attaining information.
I will use formative assessment to assess the student's learning as it is taking place.
ASSESSMENT
All about:
Main Ideas:
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Questions:
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Application to video:
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Ideas for your OTVR:
Create at least one sticky for each group member. Make sure to label your sticky(ies) with your name.
MOTIVATION & SELF REGULATION
Helps teachers to make clear, narrowed instructional objectives and to categorize the objectives (Anderson & Krathwohl, 2001).


Simple definition
: A learning objective must contain a noun and a verb.

According to Anderson & Krathwohl (2001), an objective combines the unit plan (noun) with the act of planning (the verb).
A learning objective is what teachers want students to be able to do.
Nicole:
I need to make sure that my objective is measurable.
I need my student to be capable of the goal I am setting for them.


Tommi Binns:
I need to set a clear learning objective for my learner before remaking my video.
This will help to better assess what the learner learned.

Anna:
I need to simplify my learning objective.

I need to omit the conditional statement.
Cognitive Processes Subtypes:
Remember
(recognizing, recalling)
Understand
(interpret, classify, summarize, infer, compare, explain)
Apply
(executing, implementing)
Analyze
(differentiating, organizing, attributing)
Evaluate
(checking, critiquing)
Create
(generating, planning, producing)
What is necessary in order to classify an objective?

Answer: In order to classify an objective, teachers must make assumptions about their students before learning takes place.
Application to video:
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The teacher understands that the students would not be able to tackle the test material on their own but should be able to figure it out as a group.
Nicole:
I need to use formative assessment to assess current levels
I need to clarify the cognitive process I am using when writing goals
Connor:
Teachers can use assessments to enhance learning (Snowman, 2013).
Assessments must align with learning objectives.
Main Ideas:
Create as many stickies for main ideas as you need. Feel free to add images, video, links, etc. Be sure to give proper attribution (APA style) for your sources.
Learning Objective
Structure
Sample Objective
The student will sing the song without using the music sheet.
Remember vs Understand:
Remembering is retrieving necessary information from long term memory (Anderson and Krathwohl, 2001).

Understanding is taking in the meaning of the messages one is receiving (Anderson and Krathwohl, 2001).


Performance Assessment
Written Assessments
These ask students to show what they've learned through written tests (Snowman, 2013).

Rubric

This is a guide that allows teachers to group what the students are able to achieve, provide qualitative levels on how to sort responses, and determine how to score responses (Snowman, 2013).
Learning Objectives
Important Terms:
Assessment
Measurement
Evaluation
Summative assessment
Formative assessment
Performance assessment
Portfolio
Rubric
Norm-referenced grading
Criterion-referenced grading


Main Ideas:
Create as many stickies for main ideas as you need. Feel free to add images, video, links, etc. Be sure to give proper attribution (APA style) for your sources.
Key Terms
Factual Knowledge
Conceptual Knowledge
Procedural Knowledge
Metacognitive Knowledge
Remember
Understand
Objective
Cognitive Processes

1.
Summative Assessment
is the assessment
OF
learning.


2.
Formative Assessment
is the assessment
FOR
learning.

Summative vs. Formative Assessments:
Snowman (2013) refers to an A-F grading scale... but hasn't a new common core grading system been adopted which now incorporates a number scale instead of letters?

Answer: The A to F grading scale which is based on points and percentage is no longer being used in 42 of the 50 states. They have instead adopted the common core curriculum which incorporates a 4-point grading scale for K-6 and a 5-point grading scale for 7-12.
Would the new common core grading system be considered a subjective or objective grading rubric?

Answer:
Common core grading rubric is subjective because it's up to the grading teacher to determine if students are meeting or not meeting expectations.
Ways to Evaluate Student Learning
Norm-referenced Grading
A test in which individual preformance is evaluated with reference to the preformance of a norm group. This is when a performance is not compared to tohers but how well the student themselves mastered objectives within areas of the subject (Snowman, 2013).

An example: A certain requirement to be proficient. There would be no score and it would be measured on pass or fail.
Criterion Referenced Grading
A system in which grades are determined on the basis of whether each student has attained a defined standard of achievement or performance. Grades would be determined by how a student attained a standard of achievement or performance (Snowman, 2013).

An example: How much of a percentage is scored to reward on a test. The students would be awarded a letter grade for their understanding of the material.
Summative vs. Formative Assessments
Summative Assessment
Acquiring information about students' learning prior to actual occurrence of learning (Ex: Grades) (Anderson & Krathwohl, 2001).
Formative Assessment
Collecting information about the students' learning as it is currently taking place (Anderson & Krathwohl, 2001).

Distributed: This is a broad understanding of how the students achieved the learning objective (Anderson & Krathwohl, 2001).

Focused: Concentrating on student learning in relation to one learning objective (Anderson & Krathwohl, 2001).
Measuring Student Learning
direct writing
portfolios
exhibitions
demonstrations
Knowledge Difference:
Factual Knowledge
- Knowledge of pieces of information (Anderson and Krathwohl, 2001).
Conceptual Knowledge
- This knowledge is more complicated and organized (Anderson and Krathwohl, 2001).
Procedural Knowledge
- How one knows how to do something (Anderson and Krathwohl, 2001).
Metacognitive Knowledge
- General knowledge one has of cognition and their own cognition (Anderson and Krathwohl, 2001).
The video Group Test is about:
a non-standard assessment style--group testing which allows students to work with a partner(s)
assessed foundational knowledge and skills demonstrates
Demonstrates formative-performance-direct written assessment:

peer response groups
end of lesson evaluation
several feedback and revision cycles
teacher sitting with students asking probing questions
answers are written on individual answer sheets
Mastery approach--Criterion-Referenced Grading:
The teacher wants the students to all be able to master and get through the entire test together.

If they are unable to, it is easier for him to assess how much more learning the students need on the given subject.

Connor McClain:
- Provide enough time for the student to ask questions.
- Have a more clear lesson for my learner/audience to understand.
- Finally, provider measurable objectives for my student.

Anna:
I must provide more time for learner to ask questions.

I need to check for comprehension more frequently.
One of the teacher's objectives with the group test is to force his students into conversation.

The difficultly of the test makes students work together.
Why must educators categorize objectives?

Answer: Being able to categorize objectives will allow teachers to understand objectives from the point of view of the student.

What would be the best type of assessment to give to students?

Answer: Each type of assessment has its advantages and disadvantages. It can depend on the students a teacher has and what works best for them. A written test and performance test can both be useful assessments. Depending on what the subject is, the teacher can decide which one is more useful for her students.
Performance Assessment
Example:
Group projects: Having students work together breaks the idea of just using standard testing (Example: History students working together to reenact an event in history).
Having students give a demonstration on what they've learned (Example: Students in a science classroom building a solar system).
Written Assessments Examples

Multiple choice tests (Giving students only a set A, B, C, D, answers to choose from).
True and False (Only giving two answer options).
Short-Answer Tests (This allows students more freedom to decide their answers but is shorter than an essay).
Essay Tests (Longer, written responses) (Snowman, 2013).
6 Reasons to Categorize Objectives
1. Permits educators to examine objectives from the student's point of view
2. Helps educators consider the panorama of possibilities in education
3. Helps educators see the integral relationship between knowledge and cognitive processes inherent in objectives
4. It makes life easier!
5. Makes more readily apparent the consistency, or lack of it, among the stated objectives for a unit, the way it was taught, and how learning was assessed.
6. Helps educators make better sense of the wide variety of terms that are used in education.
-Anderson & Krathwohl, p.34-36 (2001)
Taxonomy Table
The Teacher, if needed, will ask students questions to guide students on the right track.

The goal is that if students are making a mistake he can intervene in order to have the students to understand their mistakes and make corrections to avoid being completely wrong.

By allowing minimal intervention it can demonstrate how much the students understand the material.
By working together, students are able to see the perspective of others and approach the problems from an angle they typically would not.

I need to provide enough time for learner to ask questions regarding the subject material to ensure comprehension and understanding is being made prior to assessment.

I should have a more clear plan of how the lesson will go so that the students can be more engaged in order to be prepared for future assessments and maintain information.
What is the disadvantage of having broad learning objectives instead of instructional or educational?

Answers:
Students will need more than one year of academic instructions in order to learn or have mastery of the objectives.
The students are using conceptual
and procedural knowledge while
working on the test.
-They need to know the principles
and rules for how to complete the
problems.
-They need ot be able to use and
apply the knowledge they have
acquired in order to answer the
questions correctly.
Are performance or written based assessments more effective to assess student learning?
Are performance or written based assessments more effective to assess student learning?
Tommi Binns:
For my lesson, I will use positive reinforcement through telling my learner phrases like "excellent or good job".
Positive reinforcement can be a great motivator for students and is useful for teaching something in a short amount of time.
Direct Instruction:
This is when teachers directly focus on students learning basic skills (Snowman, 2013).
Students need to learn these skills in order to move up to learning harder ones.
Examples of direct instruction:
Structured, direct lectures, using positive reinforcement (Snowman, 2013).
Reinforcement vs. Punishment

Reinforcement:
attempting to increase behavior

Punishment:
attempting to reduce behavior



Reinforcement
Positive
Reinforcement
involves strengthening a target behavior
increasing and maintaining probability that a particular behavior will be repeated
presents a stimulus immediately after the behavior has occurred
(Snowman, 2013)

Example: A student who struggles with running but manages to run one full lap is given a reward of a big high five and words of encouragement, "I'm proud of you!"
Negative Reinforcement
involves strengthening a target behavior
increasing and maintaining probability that a particular behavior will be repeated
REMOVES a stimulus immediately after the behavior has occurred
(Snowman, 2013)

Example: A student who struggles with running completes at least one lap because they are worried about getting low marks for not participating in the class warm-up activity (running)
- a type of operant conditioning
- consequences STRENGTHEN a preceding behavior



- different than punishment

Punishment
Positive punishment
Type I
involves weakening/eliminates a target behavior
decreasing and maintaining probability that a particular behavior will not be repeat
presents aversive stimulus immediately after the behavior has occurred
(Snowman, 2013)

Example: A student whines about running and the other students say, "You are a wuss!"
Negative punishment
Type II
involves weakening/eliminates a target behavior
decreasing and maintaining probability that a particular behavior will not be repeat
presents desirable stimulus immediately after the behavior has occurred
(Snowman, 2013)

Example: The PE teacher threatens to lower a student's grades because they whine about running for warm-up
- a type of Operant Conditioning
- consequences WEAKEN a preceding behavior


- (2) types of punishment


( ) =
( ) =
( ) =
( ) =
Anna Gonzales:

Implementing shaping tactics to reinforce the steps for managing tasks

Implementing a variable interval schedule during the lesson to check for understanding
Equilibration:

A process by which new information is accommodated or assimilated into an existing schema or idea
Piaget's Theory


Direct Instruction:
The idea that students are "empty vessels"

Teacher is dissimulating (transferring) information onto the students
Operant Conditioning:
B.F. Skinners theory, based on how organisms respond to their environments in particular ways to obtain/avoid a certain consequence (Snowman, McCown, 2013, pg 1490).
Schedules of Reinforcement:

Fixed Interval: learner is reinforced
for the 1st desired response that
occurs after a predetermined amount
of time (Snowman, McCown, 2013, p 153).
-any desired behaviors between
intervals are ignored.
-once reinforcer is delivered,
frequency of relevant behavior
will decrease for a short
time.
Fixed Ratio Schedule:

Reinforcement is provided whenever a predetermined number of responses is made (Snowman, McCown, 213, p 154).
-This type of schedule produces high response rates
-Few or no responses occur immediately after the reinforcer is given.
Variable Ratio Schedule:
Reinforcement is given after a different number of responses from one time to the next but with a predetermined average in mind; (Snowman, McCown, 2013 p 154).
-This schedule eliminates irregularities in response rates.
Variable Interval Schedule:
The length of time between reinforcements is random but averages out to a predetermined interval (Snowman, McCown, 2013, p 154).
-use when a consistent pattern of behavior is wanted
Nicole:
-Consider my stimulus and action and the effect it will have on behavior before I take action.
Nicole:
Will one of the five conditions of reinforcement always apply to how someone will react?

Connor McClain:
Use Positive reinforcement phrases such as "terrific" or "fantastic"
Use a fixed interval schedule during the lesson to ensure the student has understanding of the material

In the first video, Behaviorism is shown when all the students come in and line up on the yellow line in a circle. They must have been taught and conditioned to do this earlier in the year.
In the first video, Behaviorism is also shown when the principle says good morning to the students and they respond "Good morning. How are you today" and when the students and principle do their call and response.
Tommi Binns:
Does behaviorism take the control away from students in a classroom?
Yes because instead of being more in control of their own learning, behaviorism puts this control in the hands of the teacher. In this approach, teachers are controlling the students' behavior.




Connor McClain:
What are the long term effects of Positive and Negative reinforcement?
What balance of authoritarian structure in a class setting is effective?




Students are also conditioned to respond to follow teacher's commands for praise and to repeat after selective students or adults speak.
In the second video, the Kindergarten students are conditioned to do the line dance move by move as a majority of the students follow without needing instructions.
In the third video, the fifth graders are conditioned to read the article and answer questions on teacher's command. He also uses call and respond phrases such as "check -check back" and "get in the zone" for students to concentrate.
In the first video, the random pattern in which students are praised for their positive behaviors and achievements mimics a variable ratio schedule.
In the second video, the song and dance they are presented with acts as a positive reinforcement. It is a desired action by the students they are being presented with, and it is strengthening the behavior of interactive conversation between the teacher and students.
Organization:
The idea that humans frequently group together a variety of processes into one system (Snowman, 2013).
Adaption:
The idea that humans make adjustments to the environments they are in (Snowman, 2013).
Schemes:
As children enter new environments they create schemes, which are organized patterns of thought (Snowman, 2013).
Assimilation
When a child takes in a new skill/experience and fits it in with an existing scheme (Snowman, 2013)
Example: Child seeing a donkey and calling it a horse. The child is fitting the new information of the donkey and assimilating it to their schema of a horse
Accommodation
This is when a child changes one of their existing schemes to incorporate a new idea/experience (Snowman, 2013).
Example: When the child sees a donkey, but calls it a horse, that is assimilation. When the child learns that it is a donkey, it is accommodation.
Tommi Binns:
I can use this theory to determine what stage of cognitive development my student is at depending on their age.
This will help me structure my lesson to better understand what my student can and cannot understand.
How does Piaget's theory underestimate children's abilities?
When Piaget was conducting his research, a lot of the tasks he asked children to do were very complex. This could flaw some of his findings and arguments.

Continuous vs. Intermittent Reinforcement
In the third video, the teacher applies Skinner's prescriptions of operant conditioning in his instructional practices for the article reading task. The teacher clearly states the purpose of the activity, demonstrates and teaches strategies to successfully complete the task, he presents logical steps to take, and allows the students different opportunities to practice the reading technique being taught (Snowman, 2013).
Anna:
How can a teacher help parents to understand that punishment may not be the most effective strategy for correcting children's behavior at home?
Nicole:
- I can use these age appropriate behavioral characteristics to know what my students are capable of and how they will best learn
How does the theory explain why developmentally delayed students get stuck in stages of development?
Disequilibrium:
a perceived discrepancy between and existing scheme and something new
-this is what motivates people to seem the balance of equilibrium (Snowman, 2013)
How are a bike and a car both transportation, but only one is an automobile?
Sensorimotor Stage
Birth-2 yrs
-child develops schemes through sensory and motor activities. Understands object permanence
(Snowman, p25, 2013)

Preoperational Stage
2-7 yrs
-child is learning to conserve (certain properties stay the same even if appearance changes) and decentration (thinking of more than one quality at a time (Snowman, p25, 2013)
Concrete Operational
7-11 yrs
- children will begin mastery of conversations such as size and shape comparisons
- begin to learn advance concepts such as questioning objects and communicate explanations (Snowman, 2013)
Formal Operational
11 yrs and up
- Students begin to think cognitively and form hypotheses
- Students also engage in adolescent egocentrism (thinking about themselves and of others and that adults/peers are invested in what they say or do) (Snowman, 2013)
How do cultural differences effect cognitive development? And, are cultural biases present in Piaget's theory?


E.L. Haynes Kindergarten D.C.
E.L. Haynes Mr. Kipp 5th Grade
E.L. Haynes Kindergarten D.C.
Group Test
During the preoperational stage it is thought that children are "not capable of mentally reversing actions" (Snowman, 2013). The Kindergarten students at times struggled with the forward sequence of the dance steps, so one might predict that most of these students would have difficulty recalling the dance steps out of order and even in reverse order based on the understood characteristics of the Preoperational stage.
The line dance song plays a series of repeating movement patterns. The children seem to be able to pick up on the organization of these movement patterns
Connor McClain:
- Knowing my student's age I can structure my lesson to the appropriate level of language and comprehension
- Doing so will allow me to see how a student understands the material and what vocabulary will need to be used or define more clearly.
Preoperational Stage
Organization
Stages of Cognitive Development
- Students in the entire school enter into the gym while several volunteers who are playing bongo drums and demonstrate concrete operations (Snowman 2013)


Morning Routine 5th Grade EL Haynes
Anna Gonzales:

Recognize in my lesson where potential discrepancies between existing schemes and newly taught schemes of being productive might occur. Incorporate time to ask the student what organizing and productive strategies they might already know so that I can redesign my lesson in a way that helps my student come to a state of equilibrium with the information.
Do we have further research and insight regarding Instruction affecting Cognitive Development?

Also, has anyone developed further explanations on Cognitive Growth regarding Piaget's Theory?

Perceptual Centration:
In the video, one of the students depicts this as they all jump, and one boy says "I can jump higher than you," and later "oops, I jumped too high!" He continues to talk about his jumps as the other students continue dancing. He is focusing his attention on one aspect/characteristic at a time (Snowman, p26, 2013)
The children show that they already have an existing scheme with the line dance. They immediately start moving to the music which shows that they have organized patterns of thought in regards to the dance.
Investigating Crickets
For each unit, you will have one or more sets of sticky notes to use to complete your concept map assignment. Note that some units have TWO topics (e.g., connectivism and constructivism). Be sure to complete ALL of the stickies for that week. Use different color notes to differentiate between topics. Use lines and arrows to create branches that connect ideas to each other. Please do not rearrange the units, or it will be very difficult for your instructor to find that week's content; you may, however, ADD stickies, images, videos, arrows, lines, etc. as needed. Be sure to add any new additions to the path.
Information Processing Theory:
This theory analyzes how people obtain, store, and recall information and how their current knowledge influences what/how they will learn (Snowman, 2013).
"Information Processing Model (2008)"
Control Process:
Controls the information that is encoded and how it moves between the memory stores (Snowman, 2013).
The processes are: recognition, attention, maintenance rehearsal, elaborative rehearsal, and retrieval (Snowman, 2013).
Tommi Binns:
Using visual imagery encoding will be helpful for my lesson because it can show the student how the final sandwich will look and provide visual help for each step. This will make the learning easier. Through only working with one individual, I was able to observe how they learned and visuals were necessary. Also, I know that the student has performed this exercise previously so I can increase meaningful learning by relating my new lesson back to the learner's stored knowledge.
We each have sensory registers, and are constantly unwillingly filtering out unwanted/unnecessary information (Snowman, 2013, p168)
Tommi: How can teachers create lessons to ensure student learning?
In order to help learners retain and remember information, a teacher must allow students to make connections, support their learning, organize material, and make room for rehearsal.
The students were able to recall information from their previous knowledge/long term memory to describe what they knew about grasshoppers.
Meaningful learning, when learners come across logically organized material and try to relate the new material to ideas and experiences they have already had (Snowman, 2013), occurs in this video as the teacher asks the students to describe the grasshoppers and ask questions about them, and the students ask if grasshoppers are related to crickets.
Nicole: How does this theory apply to individuals who have autism and cannot filter sensory information? How can those individuals learn to sort out this information that can be overwhelming?
Rehearsal
purpose of rehearsal is to memorize
information for later use
(Snowman, 2013, p.170)
Maintenance Rehearsal
Rote Rehearsal
elaborative rehearsal
Repetition Rehearsal
using mental and verbal repetition to hold information in short term memory
Encoding
Organization:
In order for students to be able to remember new and complex information, the information must be organized.
Organization makes it easier for students to understand the material because students put it into chunks
(Snowman, 2013).
The teacher had the students use their journals to organize the new information they were receiving from observing the crickets. They grouped together what they knew and what they didn't know to better organize the information, which helps them retain incoming information throughout the year long study.
LTM
: recall basics about the scientific method from the beginning of the year

Using existing schemes for Tranfer:
apply already known cricket facts and scientific method steps in a more specific way

Metacognition
: "Will we be able to do that [experiment design--different environments]? We have only 2 days."


IPT in action
: The students are asked to take a variable to create a question. Then to take that question and link it to the characteristics of the living organism that they are learning about, the cricket. This linking process might require the students to tap into their long term memories about what they know about crickets from previous exposures or they might need to look up basic information in literature resources.
Anna Gonzales:
I might pose these questions, “What methods of organizing or list making have you done before? What was helpful about that method? Not helpful?” This would require the learner to tap into their
long term memory
. Then I might ask them as a follow-up question, “How could you apply today’s lesson to help you be successful in your work environment?” This would all the learner to apply
transfer of knowledge
and to use
divergent thinking
(taking current knowledge to generate new solutions) The learner would also be tapping into their
short term memory
(recalling the lesson just learned).

Anna:

What are some lesson planning strategies that could help teachers to provide learning opportunities that encourage Metacognitive knowledge overlapping?
Adding many concepts to generate one concept
Starting with a basic concept and building off of it
Factual Knowledge
Factual Knowledge
Nicole:

-I can ask my student to recall previous known information about the activity we are doing (if she has done it before, what she remembers, what she enjoyed.)

-Talk to my student about what category she has organized this topic under, and what the knows about this category.

Miller, K. (2013).
Connor McClain:
- Ask students of using presented information in a real world application or how they retained the information. This would allow my students to think more critically.


Creating Meaningful Objectives
Learning objectives created from an Information Processing Theory perspective commonly fall under the REMEMBER section of the Cognitive Dimension

Course objectives are outlined in every course from elementary to post secondary education.

Objectives can be short term objectives (usually focused in a day or week) or long term (could be a semester or year long focus) as projected in the teacher's lesson plan.

The goal as an instructor is progressing students throughout the year to more complex learning objectives that inherently build from concepts students REMEMBER to ones students will have to EVALUATE more indepth.

The process of creating meaningful objectives is not easy. Teachers will need to practice in order to create more meaningful objectives but is obtainable over time.
Synergis Education (2013). Retrieved from http://blog.synergiseducation.com/creating-meaningful-objectives/
Connor: What is the minimum requirements for most states that teachers must cover in one year?
Is it based school by school, subject to subject, or state by state?
What is California's Minimum requirement?
Since it can be hard to take in a lot of new information at the same time, the teacher had the students work on the material throughout the school year in order for them to better retain the information.
Complex Cognitive Processes (2013) https://pamena.wordpress.com/2013/07/07/complex-cognitive-processes/
Nicole:

Is it better to present student with complex questions that require more advanced levels of thinking, or to allow students to come up with questions themselves?
Tommi:
Since students take in so much information during a single lesson, how teachers shape their lessons to benefit student retention?
Teachers should make connections from one lesson to another so that students can easily store and remember information. Lessons should revisit previous knowledge to help students take in the new information.
Anna:

Since technology tools have shown to be beneficial for knowledge construction and problem solving, how can teachers provide opportunities that simulate these benefits when there is limited access to technology tools in the classroom and school wide?
Connor:
What are the most common problems you'd see in a high school Social Science setting?
Ill-Structured Problems and Issues (Snowman 2013)
Nicole:
I can introduce new concepts that perhaps my student hasn't heard of, to get them thinking of things they may not be familiar with
Connor:
I would use problem representation as well as attempt to use specific or near transfers within my academic environment in order for students to retain information.
Helping Students Become Good Problem Solvers
1. Realize that a problem exisits
2. Understand the nature of the problem
3. Compile relevant information
4. Formulate and carry out a solution
5. Evaluate the solution
Anna:


Investigating Crickets
Tommi:
I can have my student make the sandwich with me the first time and then do it himself the second time in order to help him remember and then apply
In order for students to achieve 'optimal understanding,' a high degree of knowledge on the subject matter is needed (Snowman, 2013). For this reason, it is good that the students are allowed to reflect together and discuss all the information each knows about crickets.
Remembering:
Retrieving relevant past knowledge from long term memory (Anderson and Krathwohl, 2001)
To become good problem solvers, students must:
-Realize that a problem exists
-Understand the nature of the problem
-compile relevant information
-Formulate and carry out a solution
-Evaluate the solution (Snowman, 2013)
Understanding:
This occurs when students are able to make meaning from instructional messages which can written, oral, or communicated.
This is the main of transfer (Anderson and Krathwohl, 2001).
Apply:
This is linked with procedural knowledge and is when students are able to correctly solve problems or be able to perform certain exercises (Anderson and Krathwohl, 2001).
Analyze:
This is when students are able to break down material, take parts of it and compare it to others
This influences student's ability to make conclusions and understand facts vs. opinions (Anderson and Krathwohl, 2001).
Evaluate:
Students ability to make judgements on certain standards, which can help them with comparing material and putting material in different categories. (Anderson and Krathwohl, 2001).

Create:
This is when students are able to put things together to form a whole
With this process, students can utilize previous knowledge and make unusual products (Anderson and Krathwohl, 2001).

Available from: http://www.slideshare.net/guestabd6b4/constructivism-3781587
Students rely on their previous knowledge in order to construct new ideas (Snowman, 2013).
Tommi: I want my lesson to be very hands on and have my student actually make the sandwich with me. This will make him active in his learning.
Constructivists believe that learning is active and relates directly to personal experience (Snowman, 2013).
Tommi: What benefits might constructivism have that traditional lectured-based teaching doesn't?

Constructivism is much more hands on than lectured based teaching. Students are more active learners and can participate in their learning. This can sometimes be lost in traditional teaching.
Tommi: Since my leaner can have easy access to the internet, I will have them look up the materials of a pb & j sandwich to make sure we have everything. Also, they can use this to look up pictures of what our final product will be.
Constructivism supports the idea that meaningful learning happens when people actively engage to try to make sense of the world (Snowman, 2013)
There are 3 variations on Constructivism
This occurs by filtering new ideas and experiences through structures of knowledge one already knows (Snowman, 2013)
Cognitive Constructivism:

similar to Piaget's theory, it focuses on cognitive processes that happen within individuals (Snowman, 2013)
Social Constructivism:
the belief that meaningful learning happens when people are explicitly taught how to use tools of their culture (language, math, social cues) (Snowman, 2013)
Critical Constructivism:
the desire to create a way for all individuals to successfully acquire knowledge. It examines why learners from some cultural/social groups acquire knowledge more easily in school environments, and to help those who have difficulty learning in a school environment (Snowman, 2013)
Nicole:
I can use Critical Constructivism to strive to create a learning environment that allows students of all learning styles to successfully build their knowledge and understanding
How do we approach problem solving?

1. Realize that a problem exists
2. Understand the nature of the problem
3. Compile relevant information
4. Formulate and carry out a solution
5. Evaluate the solution
Ideas for your OTVR:
Create at least one sticky for each group member. Make sure to label your sticky(ies) with your name.
Tommi:
Should Connectivism replace older learning theories?
Replacing the older learning theories may not be entirely useful because they have been around and functioning for so long. However, since so much has changed, new theories and adaptions should be put into place.
Nicole:
How do I encourage my students to be problem solvers in day to day life?
Node:
A node is a part of the connectivism model and refers to a learning community. This community is a part of a larger network (Kop & Hill, 2008).
Network:
A network is made up of two or more nodes which are linked in order to share resources (Kop and Hill, 2008).
The students are involved in a very hands on approach through actually building a safe and working roller coaster. This makes this learning active.
Roller Coaster Physics: STEM in Action
Individual Constructivism
Social Constructivism

The students 'chime' together, talk about trials and struggles they encountered, and then individuals from other groups contributed and gave their input
- students draw individual sketches of a roller coaster design

- must label parts of design where they see how the physics concepts apply

- assigned jobs for each project provides students with a sense of ownership and encourages individual responsibility
-
Teacher's Role

The teacher encouraged peer to peer assessment
Anna:

I could incorporate individual constructivism methods to help my learner explore the organizational possibilities of the tools that are being introduced.

Anna:

After my learner explored some organizational possibilities on his own then I would ask him to share those ideas with me and this would be engaging in Connectivism.

The diversity of opinions and the requirement for students in a group to share one set of materials forces the students to have a dialogue, consider each persons input, and respect opinions to incorporate them into the design.
Application to video:
Create as many stickies for this as you need. Feel free to add images, video, links, etc. Be sure to give proper attribution (APA style) for your sources.
Roller Coaster Physics: STEM in Action
Conference Table Setting
The students demonstrated Connectivism when they gathered at their desks, which were arranged like a conference table, and they shared their individual designs and offered up constructive criticism
Anna:

How would a teacher motivate a class to entertain learning through Constructivism when as a whole the class has responded best to traditional teaching models and methods?
Connor:
In modern day classes how has constructivism adapt to technology intergration?
Connor:
Using handouts or activities I would strive to get my student's engagement in the material and have an understanding to the lesson using constructivism techniques.
Example: Parallel play in younger students
Example: Building a classroom play structure out of recycled boxes and other available art supplies
http://www.thirteen.org/edonline/concept2class/constructivism/
http://www.teach-nology.com/currenttrends/constructivism/classroom_applications/
Resources for Creating
Constructivism-Based Curriculum
Anna:

If we are working in a school that can not afford to have or does not have technology available to students, how can teachers incorporate networking and globally sharing knowledge? How do I teach my students to globally connect without the WWW?
Connectivism Today:
- This concept is seen in E-Classrooms, school related programs (Google Classroom, Adobe Connect, Moodle).
- Learning through experience versus gaining knowledge via lecturing.
Criticism:
- Learning can be not as structured as traditional theories.
- Can overlook key concepts that traditional theories could cover.
Comparing Answers with Peers
Calculator and Motivation
-Teacher gave them hints and guided their learning
Application to video:
Create as many stickies for this as you need. Feel free to add images, video, links, etc. Be sure to give proper attribution (APA style) for your sources.
Conjectures through Graphing

Male Student Sharing & Efficacy
-The male student showed what steps he took and peers learned from his demonstration.
-Boosts students self-efficacy seeing other struggle with the same things.
http://www.huskers.com/ViewArticle.dbml?DB_OEM_ID=100&ATCLID=211039895
Not so--IPT involves a lot of cognitive processes--see the top row of your chart. IPT can explain how we come to understand a concept, process similarities and differeces and etc.
Many can actually filter. However
the challenge is how the individual
experiences stimuli.
Embed note-taking, question asking,
and self-monitoring into the actual
assignment. For example, during a reading
assignment, specifically call for students
to stop after every paragraph or so and
assess their understanding. In math, it
could be knowing three sources of help and
when to call for each.
Not sure what you mean-
do you mean content?
If so, yes, each state has grade
level standards that are expected
to be taught during that year.
What about new knowledge being encoded in LTM?
Lack of questions that go beyond
recalling/remembering factual knowledge.
What should happen is more opps for hypothesis
and synthesis. Ex. What might the world look
like today had the US never bombed Japan? Or
What if the Berlin wall never fell?
Yes, more connections and chunking, literally,
opps for students to stop, think, take notes,
etc.
Both--the former can model the later.
Students need to learn what makes a question
complex and how to write one. See Costa's Levels
of questions--just Google it.
Find ways to foster ubiquitous learning--can students
do work from home or wherever they might access
technology? It does not have to happen in the classroom.
However, it is rare to find schools that don't have at
minimum Internet and a computer. The challenge is how
to group, increase access, etc.
Yes, more active learning than passive. The discovery
element makes it more engaging as well.
Have them share a problem and then
find ways to show them how classroom
problem-solving can transfer to real
life.
I think the very nature of the Internet is exploratory and like
the sandbox analogy. Discovery learning plus existing knowledge.
Connectivism supports the idea that learning is not a process entirely under control of the individual, and the ability to know more is more important that what is already known. (Siemens, 2005)
Nicole:
If acquiring new information is more important that previously known information, when we reflect, should we think back to our basic knowledge or the expanded knowledge? What do we think of naturally?
Nicole:

I should make it more clear to my student which information is most important, and which is unimportant, and this should be a skill she is developing and applying not only to this activity, but to her daily life.
What is Social Cognitive Theory?
This theory explains how students learn based off of their social atmospheres like social interactions, their different life experiences, and platforms around them like media (Snowman, 2013).
Social Cognitive Theory
Personal Agency:
This is the concept that learners have control over their own behavior and it is not influenced but outside environmental forces (Snowman, 2013).
Self Regulation:
This is when learners are able to use all of their various capabilities like their cognitive skills, to figure out new situations (Snowman, 2013).
- solving problems as a group, learning from other peers
- sharing results with group at next table over
-Having help makes self-efficacy higher
Self-efficacy:
This is how capable a learner feels when it comes to how they can perform particular tasks (Snowman, 2013).
The students took notes on stickies as they observed and analyzed the results from the simulator, then they shared these notes with each other to adjust the design of the group's roller coaster.
Connor:

I need to emphasize the importance of what I'm informing the student and also it can connect to other aspects of U.S./World History during the time period.
Connor:

Do we have any studies in which technology integration has caused harm for students learning versus sticking to more traditional ways of thinking?
Triadic Reciprocity
Tommi:
Through going through the process of making the sandwich first, the student can observe what I am doing, learn from me, and then work on his own.
Person's behavior
& thinking
Tommi:
If students are learning from other people, can they receive the wrong information? How as teachers can we prevent this?
It can be hard to control what influences students outside of the classroom, but when it comes to learning from peers in the classroom, teachers should act as facilitators to guide or correct wrong information.
Anything other
than the person
Tommi:
How can teachers assess this theory and determine how much students are learning from outside sources?
Self-Efficacy is
Domain Specific Example
I'm not good at sports. My teammates always score before I do.
I'm a great chief!
I made a tasty hamburger for dinner!
High Self-efficacy
Low Self-efficacy
Forethought Phase
Goals:
I want to finish my book for the book report by next Friday and today is Monday.

Strategies:
I will read (x) chapters everyday.

Self-Motivation:
I read book 1 in the series and finished my last book report on time, so I know that I can read this one, book 2.
Performance Phase
Self-control
: I need to sit in my room or a quiet area so that I can focus on my book and read the chapters that I want to each day.

Self-observation
: My brother wants to play my playstation game in my room and I might be distracted. Maybe I should go into another room to read the next chapter.
Self-Reflection Phase
Self-judgement: I finished my book because I worked hard and stayed focussed, even though my little brother kept interrupting me.

Self-reaction:
If I want to use my room to read, maybe I should ask mom and dad to help move the playstation into another room so that my brother doesn't interrupt me.
Phases and Categories
of the
Self-Regulation Cycle

Example: Reading Book for a Book Report
Anna:
Often, it is not practical to individually teach each student, especially those skills that they in theory should have developed earlier, for example self-regulation.

So, how can teachers model self-regulation in the classroom in way that the importance of the skill reaches each student, especially those that need to learn this vital skill?
Anna:

The student will gain confidence in self-regulation by teaching the student specific strategies for prioritizing that can be paired with various organizers and listing tools or sources.
Nicole:
How can I help teach my students self-regulation?
Nicole:
I need to be very aware of the climate in my classroom put forth by my actions and the actions of those also in my classroom, for some kids this can be more important to their learning than the environment itself.
Tommi:
I will use scaffolding in my redesign through helping the student make his sandwich in the beginning and then taking this help away by letting him do this on hid own. I will also be letting him go through the sandwich making process twice to give him practice.
Scaffolding
This technique is used to support students learning (Snowman, 2013).

These can be hints, or questions that guide student learning.
Available from: https://tadahgroup.wordpress.com/vygotskys-theory-2/
Zone of proximal development
This is what a learner is able to do on their own versus what they can do with help (Snowman, 2013).
Educators want to make sure not to give their learners something that is too easy or too hard through using the student's ZPD.
Tommi: What are the best ways to assess a student's Zone of Proximal Development?
Connor:
Can teachers cater to students as individuals but also with the classroom as the main focus in order to maintain the idea of self-regulation and also a balance of influences beyond the classroom setting?
Connor:
Citing the current event, I can connect with the student how the program made a social commentary and hope the student responds with their perspective or view of the commentary that was made to connect to the original event.
Connor:
Are there great examples of conducting either/or of Zone of Proximal Development and Scaffolding within a Social Studies class?
Connor:
For my redesign, I will incorporate scaffolding and attempt to improve the student's zone of complexity. I will also help by letting the student come up with a modern example from another program in order to relate how they made a social commentary based on events.

Spontaneous Concepts
Vygotsky created this term to reflect the different rules, idea, and facts that children learn naturally through participating in everyday activities (Snowman & McCown, 2013).
Scientific Concepts
Vygotsky coined this term to explain how learners used tools like language and rules to systemically change and manipulate their own environment (Snowman & McCown, 2013).
Although the task at hand is difficult for the students, the teacher has them work in groups so that the task is still within their ZPD
Nicole:
I need to build off of my students previous experiences and find out what they remember and like/dislike about our activity
Nicole:

How many times do I attempt to find the students ZPD if my previous guesses have been way off? (too hard, too easy)
The desired behavior and affirmation of students is occurring daily, which is a good reinforcement for students. They are able to participate in the activity, which contributes to their learning.
This daily morning activity has elements of the schools cultural values, interactions with both peers and authority figures, and builds on the student's language and communication with others.
Problem Solving Under Pressure
E.L. Haynes 5th Grade Morning Routine
Apprenticeship was seen more in the 3rd activity “Jitter Bug” because the teacher provided a finished product for the students assess and provided time for the student to ask him questions, which he in turn provided guidance and helpful feedback.

The first two activities “Plug the Oil Well” and “The Switchboard” were designed more with proximal zone of learning in mind. Both of these tasks were within the student’s skill sets when they worked in teams but the time constraint offered put the tasks at the higher end (more challenging) of the proximal zone of learning.
Anna:
What are the signs of a child not adapting to stimuli in their social interactions? How early can these signs be identified?
Anna:
Asking the student about his prior knowledge and what he remembers from the previous lesson on the topic is an informal assessment which can help the teacher to instruct within the learner's ZPD.
Tommi:
For my lesson, intrinsic motivation was used because if the student completes the task correctly, he will get a reward as the end result: a sandwich.
Types of Motivation
Extrinsic Motivation:
This type of motivation is when learners get an incentive for doing an activity but the incentive has nothing to do with that particular activity (Snowman & McCown, 2013).
Intrinsic Motivation:
This motivation has an incentive that tied to the particular activity the learner is working on (Snowman & McCown, 2013).
Apprenticeship
idea that a person can engage long-term learning with an expert or master

a long term relationship where two people engaging in learning process, one guided by the other
Bronfenbrenner's Model --Sociol-Cultural Influences
https://sites.google.com/site/psychoflearningteaching/theories
Anna:

A sense of high self-efficacy about repeating and applying the skill will be the main (intrinsic) motivator in this lesson.
(3)
Indices of
Motivation Behavior
Performance
Knowledge and Learning
Strategies
Motivated Behavior
Psychological Factors
Environmental Factors
Active
Goal
Pursuit
Persistence
Mental
Effort
If there is a breakdown in the psychological factors then this might be why we are not seeing a motivating behavior
Locus of Control
Stability
Controllability
Weiner's Attribution Theory
Internal
external
Unstable
Stable
Uncontrollable
Able to control
(ability & effort)
(task difficulty & task)
(ability--internal)
(effort - external)
(skill/efficacy)
(aptitude, mood, others' actions & luck)
Tommi:
Which type of motivation works best in the classroom to increase student learning?
Available From: https://notesfromnina.wordpress.com/2014/06/20/lifelong-learning-2/
- Students engage through seriation going through the Morning Routine but also preforming class inclusion when giving praise through giving claps and stops to students or even self hugs all of which are a form of concrete operations (Snowman 2013)
Anna:

What are some strategies that teachers can implement to motivate students to transition from being a dependent learners to a self-sufficient learners?
I worked really
hard to improve
my skill
Connor:
What is some language we can use in order to allow for students to move from the idea of luck to ability and effort for their success and failure within the classroom?
Connor:
If my student was able to pass a second post assessment, I would give them an extrinsic reward of dinner for their success.
Nicole:

What sort of things can I do regularly to see how motivated my students are feeling?
Nicole:

I can keep my learners motivated by having the activity be something they enjoy and get to participate in.
- The goal of Morning Routine is to give praise to students who did well in class or represented the 5th grade in a positive light. This exercise helps prepare students to have intrinsic motivation to start their day and to give students focus how to conduct themselves within class but to push to succeed within school.
Image from: https://uminntilt.com/2013/01/21/1997/
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