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Education in England

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Ania Sokołowska

on 17 December 2012

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Transcript of Education in England

Education in England Education in the United Kingdom is a devolved matter (zdecentralizowana sprawa) with each
of the countries of the United Kingdom having separate systems under separate governments:
the UK Government is responsible for England,
and the Scottish Government for Scotland , the Welsh Government – Wales and the Northern Ireland Executive are responsible for Northern Ireland The education system is divided(podzielony)
into nursery (ages 3–4), primary education(ages 4–11), secondary education(ages 11–18) and tertiary(trzeciorzedowy) education(ages 18+). Full-time education is compulsory(obowiazkowa) for all children aged between 5 and 16, either at school or otherwise(inaczej), with a child beginning primary education during the school year he or she turns 5. Students may then continue their secondary studies for a further(dalej) two years (sixth form), leading(prowadzac) most typically to A-level qualifications, although other qualifications and courses exist, including Business and Technology Education Council (BTEC) qualifications, the International Baccalaureate (IB) and the Cambridge Pre-U. The leaving age for compulsory
education was raised to 18 by the
Education and Skills Act 2008.
The change will take effect in 2013
for 16-year-olds and 2015 for
17-year-olds. State-provided
(pod warunkiem) schooling
and sixth form education is paid
for by taxes. England also has a
tradition of independent schooling,
but parents may choose to
educate their children by any
suitable means. Vellum is derived(pochodzi) from the Latin word “vitulinum” meaning "made from calf", leading to
Old French “Vélin” ("calfskin"). It is mammal(ssak)
skin prepared for writing or printing on, to produce single pages, scrolls(zwoje), codices or books. It is a near-synonym of the word parchment(pergamin), but "vellum" tends to be the term used for finer-quality(lepszej jakosci) parchment. The school year begins on 1 September (or 1 August if a term starts in August). Education is compulsory(obowiazkowy) for all children from their fifth birthday to the last Friday in June of the school year in which they turn 16. This will be raised, in 2013, to the year in which they turn 17 and, in 2015, to their 18th birthday Primary and secondary education State-run schools and colleges are financed through national taxation, and take pupils free of charge between the ages of 3 and 18. The schools may levy(opata) charges for activities such as swimming, theatre visits and field trips, provided the charges are voluntary, thus ensuring(zapewniajc w ten sposób) that those who cannot afford to pay are allowed to participate in such events. Approximately
(w przyblizeniu) 93% of English schoolchildren attend such schools. State-funded school system A significant minority(znaczaca mniejszosc) of state-funded schools are faith schools(szkoly wyznaniowe), which are attached to religious groups, most often the Church of England or the Roman Catholic Church.
There is also a small number of state-funded boarding schools,(internat) which typically charge for board but not tuition(czesne). Boarding fees(oplaty) are limited to £12,000 per annum (rocznie)
The table describes the most common patterns for schooling
in the state sector in England. In most cases progression from one
year group to another is based purely on chronological age, although
it is possible in some circumstances(okollicznoci) for a student to repeat or skip a year. Repetition may be due(spowodowane) to a lack of attendance (brak frekfencji), for example from a long illness, and especially in Years requiring(wymagac) standard tests. A child significantly more advanced than their classmates may be forwarded
one or more years. School years In the vast majority(zdecydowana wiekszosc) of cases, pupils progress from primary to secondary levels at age 11; in some areas either or both of the primary and secondary levels are further subdivided (podzielone). A few areas have three-tier education systems with an intermediate middle level from age 9 to 13. State-funded nursery education is available from the age of 3, and may be full-time or part-time, though this is not compulsory(obowizkowy). If registered with a state school, attendance is compulsory beginning with the term following the child's fifth birthday. Children can be enrolled(wlaczone) in the reception year in September of that school year, thus (wiec) beginning school at age 4 or 4.5. Unless the student chooses to stay within the education system, compulsory school attendance ends on the last Friday in June during the academic year in which a student attains the age of 16. Under the National Curriculum, all pupils undergo(przejsc) National Curriculum Tests towards the ends of Key Stage 2 in the core subjects of Literacy, Numeracy and Science, but not in the foundation subjects such as Geography, History and Information & Communication Technology where individual teacher assessment (oszacowac) is used instead. Pupils normally take GCSE exams in the last two years of Key Stage 4, but may also choose to work towards the attainment of alternative qualifications, such as the GNVQ. Former tests at the end of Key Stage 3 were abandoned(rezygnowac) after the 2008 tests, where severe problems emerged concerning(pojawic sie w sprawie) the marking procedures. Now at the end of Key Stage 1 and Key Stage 3, progress is examined via individual teacher assessment against the National Curriculum Attainment Targets for all subjects. Test results for schools are published, and are an important measure of their performance. A Royal Charter is a formal
document issued(wydawany)
by a monarch as letters patent, granting(przyznawana) a right
or power to an individual or a
body corporate. They were, and
are still, used to establish (ustawic) significant (znaczace) organizations such as cities (with municipal charters(z prawami miejskimi)) or universities. Charters should be distinguished (wybitny) from warrants (uzasadnienie/gwarancja)
and letters of appointment, as they have perpetual (wiecysty) effect. Typically, a Royal Charter is produced as a high-quality work of calligraphy on vellum. Higher education often begins with a three-year bachelor's degree (licencjat). Postgraduate (dyplomowany) degrees include master's degrees (magister), either taught or by research, and the doctorate, a research degree that usually takes at least three years. Universities require (wymagaja) a Royal Charter in order to issue degrees(kwestia stopnia), and all but one are financed by the
state via tuition fees (poprzez czesne), which have increased for both UK and European Union students. Years 12 and 13 are often referred to as "lower sixth form" and "upper sixth form" respectively, reflecting their distinct (odrebny), voluntary nature as the A-level years. While most secondary schools enter their pupils for A-levels, some state schools have joined the independent sector in offering the International Baccalaureate or Cambridge Pre-U qualifications instead. Some independent schools still refer to Years 7 to 11 as "first form" to "fifth form", reflecting earlier usage. Historically, this arose (powstaly) from the system in public schools, where all forms were divided into Lower, Upper, and sometimes Middle sections. Year 7 is equivalent to "Upper Third Form", Year 8 would have been known as "Lower Fourth", and so on. Some independent schools still employ this method of labelling Year groups. CURRICULUM
(program) Art & Design
Citizenship (WOS)
Design & Technology Geography
History
Information & Communication Technology Modern Foreign Languages
Music
Physical Education All maintained schools in England are required (sa zmuszone)to follow the National Curriculum, which is made up of twelve subjects. The core(glowne)subjects—English, Mathematics and Science—are compulsory for all students aged 5 to 16. A range(zakres) of other subjects, known as foundation subjects, are compulsory at one or more Key Stages: In addition, other subjects with a non-statutory programme of study in the National Curriculum are also taught, including Religious education in all Key Stages, Sex education from Key Stage 2, and Career education and Work-related learning in Key Stages 3 and 4. Religious education within community schools may be withdrawn for individual pupils with parental consent(zgoda). Similarly, parents of children in community schools may choose to opt their child out of some or all sex education lessons. English secondary schools are mostly
comprehensive(wszechstronne), except
in a few areas that retain (zachowac)
a form of the previous(poprzedni) selective
system (the Tripartite System), with students
selected for grammar school by the eleven
plus exam.There are also a number of
isolated fully selective grammar schools,
and a few dozen(tuzin/wiele) partially selective schools. Specialist schools may also select up to 10% of their intake for aptitude
(uzdolnienie) in the specialism, though relatively(stosunkowo) few of them have
taken up this option. The intake of
comprehensive schools can vary widely,
especially in urban areas with several
local schools. Sir Peter Newsam, Chief Schools Adjudicator(arbiter) 1999–2002, has argued that English schools can be divided (podzielony) into 8 types (with some overlap), based on the ability range(zakres zdolnosci) of their intake: "super-selective": almost all of the intake from the top 10%. These are the few highly selective grammar schools that dominate school performance tables.(tabela wynikow) "selective": almost all of the intake from the top 25%. These include grammar schools in areas where the Tripartite system survives. 1. Secondary school by intake (pobor) 2. 3. "comprehensive wszehstronna (plus)": admit children of all abilities, but concentrated in the top 50%. These include partially selective schools and
a few high-status faith schools
(szkoly wyznaniowe) in areas
without selection. "comprehensive (minus)": admit children of all abilities(zdolnosci), but with few in the top 25%. These include comprehensive schools with nearby(w poblizu) selective schools "skimming" the intake.
secondary modern: hardly any of the intake in the top 25%, but an even distribution of the rest. These include non-selective schools in areas where the Tripartite system survives. comprehensive: intake with an ability distribution matching (dopasowany rozklad zdolnosci) the population. These schools are most common in rural (wiejski) areas and small towns with no nearby selection, but a few occur(wystepowac)
in urban areas. 4. 5. 6. "secondary modern (minus)": no pupils in the top 25% and 10–15% in the next 25%. These schools are most common in urban areas where alternatives of types 1–5 are available.

"sub-secondary modern": intake heavily weighted toward the low (skierowane ku nizszym) end of the ability range. 7. 8. This ranking is reflected in performance tables, and thus (tak więc) the schools' attractiveness to parents. Thus, although schools may use the phrase 'comprehensive' in their prospectus or name, the schools at the higher end of the spectrum are not comprehensive in intake. Indeed(rzeczywiście), the variation (zmienność) in the social groupings in school intake, and the differences in academic performance, are enormous.

The Education Act requires parents to ensure (zapewniac) their children are educated either by attending school or alternative means. Small but increasing numbers of parents are choosing to educate their children by means other than schooling. This style of education is often referred to as Elective Home Education. The education can take a variety of forms, ranging from homeschooling where a school-style curriculum is followed at home, to unschooling, where any semblance(pozor) of structure in the educational provision is abandoned. Parents do not need permission to educate their own children. There is no requirement for parents to follow the National Curriculum, or to give formal lessons. Parents do not need to be qualified teachers, or to follow school hours and terms. Parents who choose to educate their children outside of school must finance their children's education themselves. Education by means other than schooling Students normally enter university from age 18 onwards, and study for an academic degree. Historically, all undergraduate (student) education outside the private University of Buckingham and BPP University College was largely state-financed, with a small contribution from top-up fees, however fees of up to £9,000 per annum will be charged from October 2012. There is a distinct (odrebny) hierarchy among (wsrod) universities, with the Russell Group containing most of the country's more prestigious, research-led (prowadzone badania) and research-focused (badania ukierunkowane) universities. The state does not control university syllabuses(programy nauczania), but it does influence admission procedures through the Office for Fair Access (OfFA), which approves and monitors access agreements to safeguard and promote fair access to higher education. Unlike most degrees, the state still has control over teacher training courses, and uses its Ofsted (urząd zajmujący się kontrolą instytucji oświatowych) inspectors to maintain (utrzymac) standards. Higher education The Russell Group is an association(stowarzyszenie) of 24 British public research universities. It is headquartered (z siedziba) in London and was established in 1994 to represent its members' interests, principally (glownie) to government and parliament; 19 smaller British research universities formed the 1994 Group in response. In 2010, Russell Group members received approximately two-thirds of all university research grant and contract income in the United Kingdom. Russell Group
University of Birmingham
University of Bristol
University of Cambridge
Cardiff University
Durham University
University of Edinburgh
University of Exeter
University of Glasgow
Imperial College London
King's College London
University of Leeds
University of Liverpool
London School of Economics
University of Manchester
Newcastle University
University of Nottingham
University of Oxford
Queen's University Belfast
Queen Mary, University of London
University of Sheffield
University of Southampton
University College London
University of Warwick
University of York The chapel of King's College, Cambridge University. The chapel of King's College, Cambridge University. The University of Birmingham, a 'Red Brick university'. London School of Economics Library Roof
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